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Sorne critics have pointed out that Catch is a war novel but that war is not its true subject. Thus, Tonny Tanner wrote that it was "less about the tactical struggle of two ar- mies than the struggle for survival of the individual within his own society" Then for Tanner, Yossarian is a hero not of war but of society since he manages to escape the stiff military organisation of parades and so on.

Tanner sees the characters as cartoon-strip gro- tesque personages 2 and there is black humour because Y ossarian becomes "a manipulable and disposable thing" Foliowing Tanner, A. Hilfer claims that "the Second World War is the setting of Catch, but not its true subject.

The Cold War and the political 1 The mode of the novels written after World War 11 in America, like Catch, changed mainly because of sorne great events happened between and , such as the passing from the concept of "hero" to that of "victim" or the self-questioning of a triumphant country after Vietnam or the l s upheavals.

Harris, the use of caricature shows rejection of the realistic characterization's belief that human beings can be accurately formulated From Horror to Humour This analysis coincides with Joseph Heller' s apparent intentions of writing about "the contemporary regimented business society depicted against the background of universal sorrow and in- evitable death that is the lot of ali of us" Secondly, the figure of Yossarian can be regarded as a parody of the war hero because he is not a hero of war but of a stiff contemporary society.

As a matter of fact, for Hilfer, Yossarian is a s hero because he is aware of the absurd logic of that war and not be- cause of his humanism. This idea reinforces the vision of the novel as a parody of previ- ous war narratives, since Catch presents an image of war which is very different from that shown in American war literature like Fenimore Cooper's The Last of the Mohicans, Crane's The Red Badge of Courage or Hemingway's A Farewell to Arms.

Yossarian is a weak existential character to stand a war and from the very beginning of the book he tries to avoid flying, pretending to be ill with a liver ailment in order to stay more at hospital. He is not a self-confident man and he is confused about his own identity. Not surprisingly, he thinks that war provides him with a heroic mask and he plays with different names acting as censoring officer, such as "Washington lrving" or "John Milton.

Fortiori" : The startled patientjumped down to the floor at Yossarian's command and ran away. Yossa- rian climbed up into his bed and became Warrant Officer Homer Lumley, who felt like vo- miting and was covered suddenly with a clammy sweat. He slept for an hour and wanted to be Yossarian again. There are also more examples when Yossarian takes someone else's personality, as when he tries to imitate a soldier who saw everything twice or when Doc Daneeka asks him to be an Italian man who has just died and whose family has come to visit him.

In the end, Yos- sarian' s indefinition and weakness leads him to be a puppet in the hands of an absurd mili- tary organisation ruled by the linguistic trap denominated "catch," which deceives men increasing the flying missions constantly and avoiding their escaping the war. The culmi- nation of this loss of identity takes place when Yossarian is wounded in his leg and then the nightmare of non-identity, announced previously with the soldier in white, becomes real: 3Role playing, masked identities or impersonation become favourite motifs in the novels written by sorne of the most celebrated postmodem American writers of the l s, such as John Barth or Thomas Pynchon.

The issue has obvious existentialist roots. It's no different than a gear ora bedpan. The Army has invested a lot of money to make you an airplane pilot, and you've no right to disobey the doctor's orders. He cannot distinguish reality and fiction any more and so, for instance, he sees Hungry Joe's nightmare about the cat on his face become true.

Besides, the protagonist has an ominous name "destined to serve as Colonel Cath- cart' s nemesis" that reveals that he is not suitable for Colonel Cathcart's squadron, because he is a "menacing problem" and hadan "execrable, ugly name": Yossarian--the very sight of the name made him shudder.

There were so many esses in it. It just had to be subversive. It was like the word subversive itself. It was an odious, alien, distasteful name, all like such clean, crisp, honest, American names as Cathcart, Peckem and Dreedle.

He tried to rhake himself grow calm. Yossarian was nota common name; per- haps there were not really three Yossarians but only two Yossarians, or maybe even only one Yossarian--but that really made no difference! You're the only one I know that I can really trust. That's why 1 wish you'd try to be of more help to me.

I really was disappointed when you ran off with those two tramps in Catania yesterday. He is not at ease in that world and that is why he needs to escape at the end of the book. Yossarian could become a perfect hero if the world he lives in were not "a boiling chaos in which everything was in proper order. Yossarian also defies categorisation. According to sorne critics like Douglas Day, Yossarian can be seen as a "coward, a man who throws away ali honour, sense of moral obligation and self-respect" Nussey.

Yossarian does not want to fly any more because he sees every day as "a dangerous mission against mortality. Yossarian was the best man in the group at evasive action, but had no idea why" Little by little he becomes a postmodernist figure who is tired of fighting to save his country and who realises that time has come to save himself. Then for Yosssarian, it is he who is in danger and not his country and thus his mission is only to come down alive every time he flies.

He does not follow the traditional values of patriarehy represented in the army and Colonel Cathcart regards him as a threat to the army. Yossarian "displays" a cowardly behaviour and becomes aware of the power of language to build reality, that is "catch Apart from this, Yossarian is diminished to an anti-hero as a consequence of the ironie comparisons between him and other charaeters regarded as real heroes of war, such as Hungry J oe, whom the protagonist considers the biggest hero of the Air Force beeause he had flown many combat tours of duty.

Harvermeyer, Milo, Danby, Pilchard and Wren are al so models of good patrio tic soldiers that stand out in eontrast to Yossarian' s philosophy of self-survival, but they are also parodied beeause they give absurd reasons to go on fighting in the war, sueh as obedienee to their superiors. They represent the most clear example of the powerful manipulation of identity exerted by the army. In addition, the use of free indirect style appears in order to stress the dissolution of limits between the focal- isations of the narrator and of Yossarian.

At the end, Yossarian, who understands ali this absurd logic of war and shares it, dis- covers that war does not offer any opportunity for hernie aets see Hungry Joe asan exam- ple. War is nota place for hernie and noble gestures because wars are caused by men and can be stopped by them.

That is why Yossarian changes and instead of pretending to be a hero as he did at the beginning of the book "to everyone he knew he wrote that he was going on a very dangerous mission," 8 , he ehooses to reject Colonel Catheart and Colonel Korn's deal to become a "real" or official hero in chapter 42 and he says that he "earned that meda! Apart from that, the novel can also be approached as a parody of the "romance quest.

For Denniston, Catch- 22 resembled a parody of the war romance rather than a novel beeause the eharaeters were idealised types rather than individuals, there were eonfliets, masked identities and, more important, the structure of the novel was that of a quest. The ideals of the war romance are shown in reverse. Yossarian goes through the three stages of the hernie quest; first, he has a series of minor trials in the first thirty-eight ehapters, where he tries to avoid death.

Then he faces the major conflict in chapter 39, "The Eternal City," where he goes absent without leave to Rome and tries to find Nately's whore's kid sister. Yossarian is compared to Christ then: The night was filled with horrors, and he thought he knew how Christ must have felt as he walked through the world, like a psychiatrist through a ward full of nuts, like a victim through a prison full of thieves. What a welcome sight a leper must ha ve been!

Finally, unlike in the romance, the hero is not elevated but mocked because he thinks he can be free rejecting Cathcart's offer and going to Sweden. But Milo's deals can reach Sweden easily and besides Sweden's coldness is associated with Snowden's death. There- fore, the situation goes back to the beginning and Yossarian is still immersed amid the forces of chaos, trying to get free. Finally, taking into account the modern definition of parody that Linda Hutcheon gives "repetition with difference but need not also be comic" , 4 the whole of Catch could act as a parody of Hemingway's A Farewell to Arms because there are many elements that are repeated and parodied, such as!

They deal with World War 1and11, but in the end they end up being about the same war, fought for economic reasons. Like the setting of this novel, the characters, too', are fictitious. Catch 22, 5 None of the characters in this book is a living person, norare the units or military organisa- tions mentioned actual units or organisations. The first time Yossarian saw the chaplain he fell madly in!

But there are many more similarities between both works: Frederick Henry and Yossarian do not Iike war and they have conversations with priests. They also prefer to stay at hospitals and both fall in! Yossarian's episode trying to draw a tourniquet around Snowden's thigh is also a reflection of the situation between Henry and his friend Passini: It was Passini and when 1 touched him he scream,ed. His legs were towards me and 1 saw in the dark and the light that they were both smashed above the knee.

One leg was gone and the other was held by tendons and part of the trouser and the stump twitched and jerked as 4 Hutcheon writes in A Poetics of Postmodemism: "What 1 mean by "parody" here-as elsewhere in this study-is not the ridiculing imitation of the standard theories and definitions that are rooted in eighteenth-century theories of wit.

The collective weight of parodie practice suggests a redefinition of parody as repetition with critica! Hutcheon's notion of parody also appears in Margare! I tried to get closer to Passini to try to put a tourniquet on the legs but I could not move. Yossarian rejects Colo- nel' s Cathcart's offer to become a hero, as Henry does: 'You will be decorated. They want to get you the medaglia d'argento but perhaps they can get only the brnnze. They say if you can prnve you did any hernie act you can get the silver.

Otherwise it will be the brnnze. Tell me exactly what happened. Did you do any hernie act? You must have done something hernie either before or after. Remember carefu- Jly. The whores are taken away in Hemingway's story, Henry also goes absent without leave and he wants to escape to Switzerland.

Therefore, Catch could be regarded as a parodie imitation of Hemingway's novel but there are important differences as well: Yossarian is a soldier and Henry is in the Ambulance Corps. Then Yossarian' s quest is for survival whereas Henry is a bit more distant from war and he wants Catherine's! These differences highlight the parodie component in the novel. To conclude, Catch presents Yossarian as a character who is the inverse of the war hero.

None the less, he could also be regarded as a hero out of the war context: he becomes a hero of language in the sense that he is the only one to see the madness around him: Catch did not exist, he was positive of that, but it made no difference. What did matter was that everyone thought it existed, and that was much worse, for there was no object or text to ridicule or refute, to accuse, criticize, attack, amend, hate, revile, spit at, rip to shreds, trample upon or bum up.

The spirit gone, man is garbage. That was Snowden's secret. Ripeness was ali" Yossarian is in a higher leve! This can be seen in Hemingway's novel, where roen go to war in order to show how powerful their country is and how male they are my emphasis. However, Yossarian was "crazy" but "that crazy bastard may be the only sane one left," as it is said in the novel.

Yossarian knows what the war means: But Yossarian couldn't be happy, even though the Texan didn't want him to be, because outside the hospital there was still nothing funny going on. The only thing going on was a war, and no one seemed to notice but Yossarian and Dunbar. And when Yossarian tried to remind people, they drew away from him and thought he was crazy. Then to play with the notion of Catch is an escape to understand the novel.

Thus parody is also meta- fictional as Linda Hutcheon suggested and there is self-reflexiveness, as it happens in post-modernist texts such as Thornas Pynchon's The Crying of Lot 49, with the Trystero system, or the game in Sam Shepard's "The Tooth of Crime. Unlike the novelists belonging to the first half of this century, Heller used the conventional novelistic methods ironically and he used absurdist techniques to deal with the absurdist content.

Sorne critics like Charles B. Harris write that the reflective use of burlesque and parody shows that reality cannot be ordered through literature the art forrn is not ordered either , because there are multiple realities, as a con- sequence of the influence of Einstein relativity and quantum physics.

Parody becomes then the best way to represent these multiple realities, because one re- ality gets questioned by another. Thus, at the end readers should find laughter as a response to the blackness of modern existence depicted by Heller and they should not try to look for sense in reality. Like in Steme's novel, Catch shows problems with time; times are divided into that of the telling and that of the events, one is chronological and the other psychological.

Bradbury, Malcolm. The Modern American Novel. Oxford: OUP, Frye, Northrop. Anatomy of Criticism: Four Essays. Princeton, N. Harris, Charles B. Contemporary American Novelists of the Absurd. New Haven, Conn. Heller, Joseph. Hemingway, Ernest. A Farewell to Arms. Hilfer, A. American Fiction Since New York: Longman, Hutcheon, Linda. Lehmann, Paul.

Die Parodie im Mittelalter. New York: U of Oklahoma P, Nagel, James. Essays on Catch Nussey, Kevin. Rose, Margaret A.. Parody: Ancient, Modern, and Post-modern. Cambridge: CUP, Smith, Stan. South Shields: Peterson Printers. British Association for American Studies, Pamphlet 5, Tanner, Tonny. City of Words: American Fiction London: Jonathan Cape Ltd. Dieu m'en garde. Mais aussi bien: comment le faire sans se laisser inventer par rautre? J'infiniment petit du sens. What the transla- tion reveals is that this alienation is at its strongest in our relation to our own original lan- guage.

Je suis monolingue Ce serait la loi elle- meme comme traduction. La lengua del otro La lengua que se ha hablado y escuchado desde la cuna no puede llamarse propia, es siempre algo prestado, algo que viene del otro. El punto de referencia al que el yo tiene que remitirse para configurarse no existe, no ha existido nunca. Such thinking about the nature of translation and the nature of language, lhus, becomes importan!

Not only that, the Germans sounded like the Russians, who in turn sounded like the great writers of Spanish, Italian and French literatu- res. What the British canon considers transparency isn't transparent at ali, but is mediated; where the British see transparency, l see an inflated Matthew Amold, subsuming authors fro m various cultures into the dominant voice that defined the British Empire. Otras veces. II faudra que vous appreniez la sienne pour le convaincre.

For while both translators and spouses were once bound by contracts to Jove, honor, and obey, and while both inevita- bly betray, the curren! But what are the altemati- ves? Is it possible simply to renounce the meaning of promises or the promise of meaning? Fortunately, I must address translation, not matrimony. Each must accommodate the requirements of the other without their ever having the possibility to meet. A text lives only if it lives on [sur-vit. Totally translatable, it disappears as a text, as wri- ting, as a body of language [tangue].

Totally untranslatable, even within whal is believed to be one language, it dies immediatel y. Thus triumphant translation is neither the life nor the death of the tcxt, only or already its living , its after life. Post-colonial translation. Bataille, Georges. El erotismo. Heidelberg: Suhrkamp. De Man, Paul. Resistance to Theory. Minneapolis: U of Minnesota P, Derrida, J acques. Donner le temps 1. La fausse monnaie. Du droit a la philosophie.

Bloom, et al. New York: The Seabury Press, Le monolinguisme de l'autre ou la prothese de l'origine. L'oreille de l'autre. Autobiographies, transferts, traductions. Christie V. Memoirs pour Paul de Man. Jn ventions de l 'autre. Pour Paul Celan. Marzo, Gentzler, Edwin. Contemporary Translation Theories. Routledge, Graham, J. Difference in Translation. Ithaca: Cornell UP, Der Dialog der Sprachen. Frankfurt: Suhrkamp, Anselm Haverkamp. Frankfurt: Fischer, Spivak, Gayatri.

An- selm Haverkamp. Yenuti, Lawrence. London: Routle- dge, The Scandals of Translation. Ethik der Gabe. Denken nach Ja- cques Derrida. Wills, David "Gespaltene Zunge. Eine Antwort auf Jacques Derrida. At this very moment western civilization is in the discursive process of consolidating the age of the post-human. Our bodies are now understood as ephemeral beings subject to a proc- ess of continua! From our DNA codes to the functioning of the human brain everything is data, and data is the only entity that will exist When we "leave the meat behind," as cyberpunk writer William Gibson put it.

The instability of the self has also been a favourite argument among intellectual circles for the last few decades and has been frequently related to the main way in which people transmit data: language. The la- canian human being is an unstable subject trapped by linguistic metaphoricity, and so is the Derridean. When the scientific, the poststructuralist, and the artistic meet at the cross-roads of the postmodern, the ideological deed has already been accomplished: the self escapes, no pre- vious value can hold its ground , and the moment comes for the formulation of a new reality.

Nowadays, the history of fiction obviously calls for the necessity to cope with the postmod- ern visions of reality. Correspondingly, writers have revised their technical strategies so as to fit them within contemporary beliefs about life.

What follows is a short attempt to recognize and value the predominance of sorne technical strategies that accompanied postmodern fiction in its revaluation of realism. The condition of instability, the emphasis on fragmentation, or the disruption of traditional genres were not issues that could be easily matched with realism. How could writers relate the postmodern to the old realist structures? I will try to answer this ques- tion with the help of scientific and Iiterary history.

First I will briefly comment on sorne facts connected to the beginnings of the English novel, to the impact of social issues in the strategies used by those early novelists, and to the role played by scientific discourse in modifying the bourgeois understanding of reality at the time. Later, I will deal with sorne notions pertaining Darwinism and entropy, and with the literary "post-realist" result that was baptised as Natural- ism.

Finally I will pay a closer attention to the twentieth century and to the different revolu- tionary scientific theories that helped in the formation of the modernist and the postmodernist ethos, and to the latter's narrative game with the real ist. The celebration of aristocratic poetry and poetic forms in the English Golden Age finally had to give way to a new form of entertainment more in accordance with the new powerful people who, from the second half of the seventeenth century, constituted the reading public: the rich rniddle and upper classes.

Their pragmatic views, their interest in social progress, and their necessity to be saved by means of their own merits gradually crystallised in a reviva! No wonder then that the last half of the seventeenth century and the first decades of the following one became the appropriate setting for the new type of narrative literature represented by poets such as the encyclopaedic Milton or the satirists Dryden or Pope: the narrative, to tell a story, was rediscovered as a befitting way both to entertain readers while also teaching them a moral.

There were also at this time sorne astute authors that decided to fully liberate the narrative from the formal constraints of poetry and decided to write their stories in prose form. In this libera- tory mood the modern English novel was born. Social conditions favoured that it was born arnidst a sustained effort on the part of writers to produce in their readers the impression of credibility and objectivity: the world was out there to be described but equally important was to convince the public that what was being reported was totally credible or, even better, that those reported events had actually happened.

Sorne of the first examples that characterise the early stages of the English novel show an outstanding artistry in producing credibility, Daniel De- foe's A Joumal of the Plague Year being one of the most remarkable instances.

In those years there is a proliferation of narrators who have also been participants or protagonists of the sto- ries they narrate, and who offer the best proof of the story' s veracity: their own role in it. Other realist strategies are soon applied with similar intentions, for instance, Richardson's use of apparently real letters to convince readers of the veracity of his reports. The emphasis that this period puts on the paradoxical credibility of fiction runs parallel to the corning of the enlightened project of the Modernity, a project that is also deeply rooted in new scientific discoveries that resulted in a new interpretation of the laws of motion and in the synthesis of the laws of bodily attractions promulgated by the most eminent scientist of the time: Sir Isaac Newton, the father of classic physics.

Newton's ideas meant the end of the prevalence of ancient Greek theories about the way the universe exists, and also the beginning of an optirnistic belief in the human capacity to know and understand the world Nadeau. The pertinacity of his celebrated Law of Gravitation acquired the category of universal and his theories, basically promulgated in his Principia, became a firm support for the bourgeois belief in their own competence to understand and faithfully describe the world.

By the beginning of the nineteenth century, when Napoleon ruled over half of Europe, one of his scientists, Pierre-Simon Laplace, had extended this optirnistic Newtonian understanding of physics and happily proclaimed that a demon or hypothetical figure with an extraordinary mathematical capacity that knew the initial conditions of a system and!

However, the impact and subsequent development of Newtonian theories cannot be consid- ered only with regards to the social project of the Enlightenment. The development of scientific beliefs is also in correspondence with a certain departure from previous realist strategies in the history of the English novel. This type of non-participant narrator is also characterised by another peculiar attribute: it is usually ornniscient, a sort of god or, in a sense, it seems to be a literary correlate ofLaplace's Demon.

The nineteenth century also brings questions about the gradual shift that, starting in the pre- vious optirnism about the capacity of the human being to know the world-the Enlightenment Project--carried western mentality into much more negative views about life and reality. Ob- viously there are many and different reasons that help us to explain this ideological shift from the type of novel represented by Richardson, Sterne, or Defoe into the more bleaker views of Dickens or Balzac.

And here, once again, scientific discourse contributes, together with other social and anthropological reasons, to the new pessimistic mood. Nowadays it is a well-known fact that one of the main scientific ingredients that added into the increasing negative views already apparent as the nineteenth century advanced were Charles Darwin's ideas. His work The Origin of Species and his idea of the survival of the fittest meant a total reinterpretation of physical reality: from being something that humans will utterly control in the future Laplace , life has now changed into a more unstable, impredictable entity that is subject to many vari- ables.

These variables may bring about modifications that become ultimately responsible for incredible changes in the living species of this planet. However, there is another scientific key-stone in the nineteenth century that also helps us to understand the ideological shift that, within literary grounds, means the entrance into that pes- sirnistic post-realism labeled as "Naturalism.

Clausius in The law of Entropy, with its implication that the Universe the ultimate close system we know about is cooling off or running shorter of its available energy, represents another heavy blow for that scientific and bourgeois confidence in the human powers traditionally expressed within the context of Newtonian mechanist laws.

The cultural influence of the Second Law of Ther- modynarnics is already felt very deeply by the turn of the century, with Henry Adams's cele- brated work The Education of Henry Adams as one of the best intellectual examples of the grip the pessirnistic law has on American letters.

The depiction of the city as a rnonster or of cheap tenernent housing as a source of conflicting and dissipative gossiping are strategies that readers can easily trace in Theodore Dreiser's or Stephen Crane's works. The latter clearly anticipates in Maggie: A Girl of the Streets the notion of entropy in inforrnation flow that, sorne six or seven decades later, will characterise a very interesting part of American postrnodern fiction. However, the beginning of the twentieth century meant rnany more heavy blows to the mechanist self-confidence in understanding and controlling the world.

The story of what Mod- ernism rneant has been narrated so often that probably a few indications are sufficient in order to establish the links existing at the time between scientific discourse and narrative strategies. The spreading of new studies in psychology, the foundations of psychoanalysis and a paradoxical acceptance and rejection of science and the new technologies were ali irnportant elements in the transforrnation, at the beginning of the century, of both European and American culture.

Sornehow the result was the final rejection of the bourgeois project of the Modernity and the necessity to find a metaphysi- cal way-out, something that was accomplished by means of the creation of a new metanarra- tive: the discourse of rnyth, the belief in a set of mental universal patterns that led human be- ings towards the liberating recognition of the meaning of life Manganaro. Psychoanalysis, especially represented by the theories of Sigmund Freud and Car!

Jung, and modern anthro- pological studies--Sir James G. Frazer and his influential study The Golden Bougheventually meant a peculiar ideological shift: the validity of universal physical laws mechanist philosophy and classic physics was being replaced by a new belief in the validity of universal psychic patterns. That is to say, Modernism, even in its rejection of the master- narrative of the Enlightenment, had created a new rnaster-narrative still rooted in the belief of universal norms.

The works of T. Eliot, Virginia Woolf or William Faulkner offer very clear proof of that in the grounds of both British and American literature. Sorne years after the high peak of Modernism carne to an end readers could still approach notions such as the ones defended by anthropologist Joseph Campbell who in his work The Hero With a Thousand Faces traced and believed in the existence of a pattern that he denomi- nated "the quest of the hero of the monornyth.

Modernism, in this sense, could have become a type of culture confident in the powers of the individual mind. In this way it could have solved the anguishing metaphysical problems that the new century had brought about. In effect, sorne authors talked about states of superior knowledge: James Joyce wrote about "epiphanies," Virginia Woolf about "visions," while Car! Jung became obsessed with the power of the circle or mandala as the psychic way to approach what he believed to be an "immediate experience" of the meaning of life.

But metaphysical hope was not firmly rooted at the time. To complicate things further, in the grounds of science the world was beginning to be understood as some- thing more complex than previously thought; the Universe was not simply ruled by mechanist forces but also by the continuum space-time and by an infinite number of sub-atomic collisions that took place in the microscopic world.

New theories, mainly sprouting from nineteenth- century research, eventually resulted in Einstein's formulation of his famous theory of relativity and in the development of quantum mechanics, the latter being a clear predecessor of the Der- ridean deconstruction of binary modes of thinking. It is now common understanding that Albert Einstein was not only the intellectual father of the theory of relativity, whose postulates were soon to be transmuted into modernist literary works Wilson.

What it means in lay terms is that the electron manifests itself as both wave and particle at the same time: oras physicists say, the electron behaves in a schizophrenic way. As scientist Paul Davis affirms , common sense and intuition became the first victims of Einstein's formulae. Quantum analysis soon led sorne scientists to doubt even the possibility of ever reaching any accurate knowledge of life, in this way adding to the epistemological difficulties of modernist times.

Following the development of quantum mechanics, Werner Heisenberg formulated his fa- mous "uncertainty principie" that affirms that pairs of quantities--that is to say, the position and momentum of the electron--are incompatible for scientific measurement, meaning by this that they cannot be simultaneously measured: scientists become uncertain in the face of the quantum atom because they can only choose which quantity to measure first, but the more precisely one quantity is measured the more imprecise data will be obtained about the other quantity.

The popularity of this Heisenber- gian notion has been such that even in contemporary fiction and literary criticism writers still try to confuse pragmatic readers with explanations of this disturbing scientific principie Kraft According to Heisenberg's principie accurate measurement, at least on the subatomic leve! Needless to say, the impact of relativity and qilantum theories and their re- jection of sorne traditional Newtonian beliefs brought about the first scientific revolution of our century.

Readers interested in American fiction can easily find literary correlates of the empha- sis science put on relativity. Different perspectives and techniques amalgamate in keystones of the American modernist novel, such as Dos Passos's USA or Faulkner's The Sound and the Fury: the interpretation of life is now relative to the source of knowledge, to the mind that focalizes on the world and to the voice that reports on it.

An omniscient narrator mixes with a peculiar Camera Eye in Dos Passos's trilogy, or Benjy's understanding of the world radically differs from that of his brother Quentin's in Faulkner's novel. Also highly noticeable is the abundant use in modernist fiction of the technique of free indirect style: by means of this tech- nical strategy the ontological limits between the narrative voice and the private focalization of the characters are frequently blurred, and relativity also confirms its important ideological role in the grounds of the narrative.

Within the complex grounds of modernism, however, scientific relativity seems to enter into conflict with that emphasis on universality that I referred to when dealing with modernist introspection and the creation of a master-narrative of myth. In the first decades of the twenti- eth century forms of universality were not restricted to the grounds of creative Iiterature, of psychoanalysis, or of anthropolpgy: Ferdinand de Saussure also tried to formulate a universal theory for the understanding of language, the Russian formalists also started their quest to find out the few rules that govern language, and still scientists could not forget that Newtonian physics offers valid procedures to interpret many aspects of life.

From the s onwards, sorne thinkers such as Jacques Lacan, started to develop more totalizing theories about the human being that critics used, in later years, to oppose that typical emphasis on totalization and absolute knowledge, an emphasis that has frequently characterized western culture. Gradually, as we moved into the territory of the postmodern, language was understood as something para- doxical, that human beings tried to use now in order to reject traditional categorical thinking and to erase ali confidence in clear limits, and in the concepts of human essence and stability: but there it was, in modernist linguistics there had been an attempt to present language as something stable, perfectly controlled by a series of rules studied.

And lan- guage trapped us, in Lacanian or in Borgesian, or even in Eliotean terms: Nominalism had also reappeared in cultural modernism, the use of language constituting the root of the epistemo- logical difficulties it brought about. There was no way to escape language, and in the realm of creative narrative language conducted us only to more language, and there stand T. Eliot, James Joyce, or Flann O'Brien to suggest that in Modernism the circle of myth is not the only one that traps us: fiction escapes into meta-fiction, life starts to be interpreted as a textual web and, as a result, the human being acquires the condition of a mere symbolic animal.

After the Second World War, in the intellectual climate reason and mythic faith held their ground together and, as happened in the realm of science, post-war American culture was also becoming immersed in the prevalence of paradox, one of the most effective marks of the post- modern condition, and chaos was preparing its entrance into the world of letters. Anglo-Saxon critics were also surprised by a wave of excellent Jewish writers who soon started to be praised in the American literary market while at the same time being labeled as "novelists of manners" and attributed the qualification of "realist writers.

Classic realism had been replaced by modernist psychological realism, and al- ready in the sixties many intellectuals were accepting the belief that human beings are trapped in semiotic codes and that knowledge is always something relative to the frame of reference and the instruments used by the knowing subject.

As 1 argued earlier in this paper, for severa! It is not surprising then that Jewish author Saul Bellow, apparently a writer of "psychological realism" and "the novel of manners," denies ali those labeling implications as early as with the publication of his novel Henderson the Rain King. Readers of this book may easily find out that it is symbolically structured around Joseph Campbell' s pattern of the monomyth: Henderson seems to be the typical modernist hero questing for the meaning of life, and in his quest he follows a typical road of trials where he has to undergo different rites of passage.

But the novel is more than a worn-out example of mod- ernist psychological realism: it is a huge parody of the modernist belief in the meta-narrative of myth. Henderson is a clear example of a symbol-making animal and being the narrator of his own story, he discloses alife that could be a perfectly exaggerated example for Sigmund Freud to typify the castrated male. Henderson is also an exaggerated example of anthropologist James Frazer's figure of the king who has to die so as to restore life to his land Frazer XXIV.

But Henderson is, above ali, a paranoid narrator who reports on how his mental condition improved in his journey to Africa: the story ends when he stops in the symbolic Newfoundland with a little child who cannot talk English and with a little! However, when he finishes his report Henderson the narrator is still the castrated paranoiac who mentally tries to control the world and his life, but he is bound to get no ultimate answer because, as a human being, Henderson is only able to generate symbols to interpret, but never to know, reality.

In a sense, it could also be argued that Henderson the Rain King is one of the first great contemporary novels to utilize a strategy that many critics associate to postmodern literature: parody. Once the belief in traditional meta-narratives has disappeared, writers may want to go back to traditional styles and strategies in order to criticize them or simply to show that they are also artificially constructed: parody supposes the introduction of an element that produces instability in the realm of the literary traditional.

It is, in this sense, a stylistic feature that runs parallel to the new emphasis that science is laying on far-from-equilibrium systems, or what more commonly is referred to as the Theory of Chaos, the second great scientific revolution in our century. The old mythological dichotomy Chaos vs. Order finds in this set of contemporary scientific theories the end of the predominance and goodness of order for the benefit of a new synthesis where chaos and order are not considered to be opposite but complementary elements.

In scientific terms, chaos the- ory means that now science pays much more attention to probability, randornness, complexity and to ali those events and systems that do not seem to follow a fixed pattern. Chaos scientists are interested in local causes, impredictability, bifurcative options and irregularity.

In other words, they focus their attention in ali those physical gaps that traditional or Newtonian science had systematically tried to ignore. Systematicity and natural laws give way here to the study of small conditions that may generate big reactions, chaotic factors are studied as possible gen- erators of new ordered systems, entropic dissipation is analyzed to see if it will generate ne- gentropic zones. The belief for sorne of these scientists is that chaos is an order that we cannot understand yet Gleick , whereas for others, such as Ilya Prigogine, chaos must be studied as a possible generator of new ordered systems.

What is interesting in this reviva! In this sense, there are clear indications that the new ethos proposed by chaos the- ory and its cultural influence can help critics to explain and define the existence of an appar- ently paradoxical postmodern realism. If we have a look at recent criticism on the contemporary American novel, we can come across a number of scholars who substitute the postmodernist in literary grounds for the ex- perimental or metafictional: in this sense postmodernist would qualify the overtly metafictional prose written by novelists like John Barth or Gilbert Sorrentino mostly in the l s, a type of fiction that basically represents the late modernist and poststructuralist belief that we cannot escape textuality in our comprehension of reality: that life is a text, as Borges or Nabokov implied, or the fact that we can never escape the symbolic, as Lacan theorized, or that "there is nothing outside the text," as Derrida popularized.

But this trend of highly metafictional prose that somehow became the canonized postmodernist text soon gave way to the increasing ca- nonical importance of a different type of text: the socially committed story that reflected the living conditions of marginalized American minorities. For women, African-Americans, Na- tive-Americans, Asian-American, Chicanos, or gays the moment had come to question the traditional values of Anglo-Saxon patriarchy, and American fiction became one more weapon, and at times a very powerful one, in their fight for social justice.

A substantial quantity of this type of fiction was written according to realist terms: for political reasons mimesis became ali important again, because one of the main aims of writers was to denounce and to be understood by a majority of the reading public. That this type of fiction can be qualified as postmodernist or simply as a socio-literary seque! However, sorne writers also af- firmed that theirs seemed to be a different type of realism, not quite in the style of previous authors Banks By the s, then, traditional critica!

When considering books like Gloria Naylor's The Women of Brewster Place or Russell Banks' Trailerpark it is difficult to decide whether they are novels or short story collections. Traditional realist devices such as a unified narrative voice or one single view- point were also giving way to a plurality of angles, to a complexity of lives whose paths some- how met at sorne moment or place. But this new type of postmodern realism was putting into practice even more perplexing technical strategies such as the use of an unstable narrator who may even question the credibility of the story he or she is telling Mukherjee's The Hol.

Clearly the coming back to realist premises meant for writers of this type of postrnodern fiction nota necessity to report on the world in mimetic terms but, on the contrary, their recog- nition that life cannot be easily understood nor depicted from a categorical or merely sensorial perspective. Sorne examples may help us to recognize the literary effects of this type of realism that has been filtered by postmodernist beliefs. Naylor's The Women of Brewster Place is not only a perfect example of the dissolution of limits between the novel and the short story collection, as I mentioned earlier, or one more instance of feminist realism and, at times, also of homophobic criticism, as sorne scholars have suggested.

The book is also very effective in producing ontological and narratological confusion. The story textually starts with five pages written in italics, a device that will be repeated at the end of the book to give readers an impres- sion of encapsulation. Then the story unfolds divided in different em- bedded stories or chapters, almost each one of them dedicated to one female character. The first one tells readers about Mattie Michael, a figure that will reappear in sorne other episodes and who seems to embody one of the main motifs of the book: the necessity to fight against patriar- chy and to stand up for female rights.

However, readers are soon informed that Mattie enters a day-drearning trance that allows us to know many events that befell this character earlier in her life, events that somehow forced her to come to Brewster Place 8. By the end of the last epi- sode, readers are informed that Mattie wakes up and there is no way to know whether she has been only dreaming a strange surrealist event in which the women of Brewster Place have been trying hard to symbolically liberate themselves from patriarchal rule, or whether the whole story in the book has been nothing but a dream.

Parody, symbology, different narratoria! The only clear boundary that remains at the end of the story is the actual brick wall that separates the African-American women from the rest of the world, Brewster Place from freedom. New York writer Eric Kraft probably offers in his fiction sorne of the most interesting ex- amples of American postmodernist realism.

Kraft is not only a creative writer but also a person very keen in contemporary phys. His stories are always narrated by somebody called Peter Leroy who is very fond of commenting, in the Preface of each book, about the ways in which he--Peter-invents, imagines or remembers the story of his own life! Definitely, Peter Leroy's realist approach differs very much from Daniel Defoe's insistence on credibility.

In the Preface of one of Kraft's most popular books, Where Do You Stop , Leroy starts by affirming the difficulties he has to clearly remember things past: Sometimes my memory seems to be mush, with shining moments scattered through it like chips of marble in wet cement or peas stirred into mashed potatoes.

Reaching for a chip of marble, I come up with a pea. Once in a while, though, something--some random turbulence in the mush, perhapsbrings to the top a chip that surprises me, one I haven't looked for, but one I'm happy to see Proust but, if they pay a closer attention to this book beginning they may as well discover that it is not sim- ply a highly metaphoric text. It is also a literary transcription of Heisenberg's uncertainty prin- cipie, a transcription effected on the reality of the functioning of the human mind: the observer always interferes in the act of observation.

Furthermore, this interference may produce an un- expected reaction that could eventually prove very useful for the observer: random turbulence may bring about wonderful results. Among brackets, this is the way Peter Leroy finishes his peculiar Preface: By the way: it has been my habit, heretofore, to tell my tale in installments of nearly equal length, the length of novellas.

This installment [the book Where Do You Stop? But readers accepting to play the game suggested at the end of it--to look for the boundaries of the three novellas--are bound to expe- rience big difficulties in order to do so because above ali Where Do You Stop? Lim- its--the ones existing between Kraft and Leroy, credibility and imagination, black and white--are where we humans want to establish them, physical reality being nothing but the grounds where fuzziness and turbulence are disguised under a false image of stability.

Very fond of symbols that combine with realist strategies, Indian-bom but American author Bharati Mukherjee also offers in her writings an interesting combination of literary devices and scientific beliefs. Probably her most intensively postmodem although realist work up to date is her novel The Holder of the World, an apparent historical novel that can easily be quali- fied as a product of historiographic metafiction and that further confirms two relevant issues of the contemporary American novel: the importance of chaos dynarnics and poststructuralism, and the inventive role played by the narrator.

The Holder of the World is a novel where two parallel stories unfold: one story--the historical one--is a report of the life and adventures of Hannah Easton, bom in the colony of Massachusetts in Hannah is of an early ferninist rnind and her beliefs will take her to live many adventures in the Coromandel Coast, in India.

But the second story is nothing but the parodie quest for knowledge represented in narrator Beigh Master's attempt to narrate Hannah's story. Very soon in her report narrator Beigh Masters discloses her post- structural and chaotic stance to recreate the past: she participated in a serninar on American Puritans at Y ale and, that seminar set in motion a hunger for connectness, a belief that with sufficient passion and intelligence we can deconstruct the barriers of time and geography.

Maybe that led, circui- tously, to [her boyfriend] Venn. Puritan Massa- chusetts and Mughal India offers the writer the possibility to deconstruct traditional binarism. In her narrator's words there is also an early anticipation or "mahifesto" that sets the grounds for the battle between binarist patriarchy and the archeologist's literary imagination: I move from unfurbished room to room, slaloming between us and them, imagining our wonder and their dread, now as a freebooter from colonial Rehobot or Marblehead, and now as a Hindu king or Mughal emperor watching the dawn of a dreadful future through the bloody prism of a single perfect ruby, through an earring or a jewel from the heavy neck- lace.

In a parodie way of cyberpunk reminiscences, the narrator's boyfriend Venn also becomes her assistant and develops a virtual-reality program that Beigh uses to technologically travel back to the past of Hannah's life. In the narrator's invented story realist descriptions abound, historical documents are pre- sented, real personages appear: realism is certainly back but readers may easily conclude that, as corresponds to the postmodem times of its production, Mukherjee's The Hol.

Tim O'Brien is a Vietnam veteran who has written a number of books where Iimits be- tween the novel and the short story are also blurred, as blurred are the limits between factuality and invention. Is O'Brien actually remembering real events of the Vietnam war? These two questions could be typically for- mulated by people interested in the strategies of classic realism, but anticipating them O'Brien wrote a celebrated short story that he first published in Esquire and then in his novel or collec- tion of short stories The Things They Carried , a book that is simply labeled as "a work of fiction.

And that is what the story eventually proves to be: the story may be only one and based on a real event, but the ways to tell it are many, or at least sorne. Almost everything is true. Almost nothing is true You feel an intense, out-of-the-skin awareness of your living self- your truest self, the human being you want to be and then become by the force of wanting it. Changing Views The post- structuralist notion that presents life as a text has gradually modified our focus of argumenta- tion: what is the world has been replaced by how is the world interpreted and reported by dif- ferent people.

And so postrnodern realism becomes a way to analyze how we, unstable sub- jects, interpret the world at present, far away from universal values and truths; and the story has become the story of the telling of a story, in realist terms, whatever realist may mean for you or forme. Revista de Estudios Norteamericanos 4 : New York: Ballantine, Campbell, Joseph. The Hero With a Thousand Faces. Daiches, David. Vol 3 The Restoration to Davies, Paul. The Cosmic Blueprint. Davies, Paul, and John Gribbin.

Harmond- sworth: Penguin, Frazer, James G.. London: Macmillan, Gleick, James. Chaos: Making a New Science. New York: Viking, Hayles, N. Chicago: The U ofChicago P, Katherine, ed. New York: Rout- ledge, However, the prevailing feeling was that postmodernisms and attitudes towards them continue to develop. It is much more than a! Postmodernism or postmodernisms are still those discourses and forms of representation which draw attention to the changing nature of society and reflect a variety of attitudes, sorne skeptical, others welcoming, towards a mass culture.

These articles make it clear that what postmodernism represents or the significance and repercussions of what is considered to be postmodern remain a series of open questions in an ongoing discussion and, having looked back at these many different attitudes about the subject, the prospects are that in the not too distant future we will be asking similar questions once again. Sin embargo, el sentimiento preva- leciente fue el de que los postmodernismos, y la manera en que los entendemos, es algo en continuo desarrollo y cambio.

Literature after the sixties turned back to representationality, but it did not produce the kind of mimesis praised and practised by nineteenth-century Realism. Certainly, it was not an innocent return because it possessed a revolutionary component, in the sense that now the objects to be represented already ex- isted as represented objects and the reader was made aware of that confusion between pro- jection and the real object.

Literature, as well as other products meant for cultural con- sumption, stopped being concerned with inventing new stories, new characters, new plots, and began to pay attention to the way in which the world projected by other narratives was constructed. The result was the appearance of literary works which were, on the one hand, self-reflexive and metafictional in form, and, historically grounded, on the other, since this revisitation of already written texts was concerned with an ironic, parodie and critica!

This revision of the past is also markedly political, because the stories and images cre- ated in this new light are not neutral, though they might sometimes seem so 'aestheticized' as to take the risk of being regarded as mere narcissistic products. There used to be, before, a specific class of allegorical and slightly diabolical objects: mirrors, images, works of art concepts? And pleasure consisted then rather in discovering the 'natural' in what was artificial and counterfeit.

Today, when the real and the imaginary are confused in the same operational totality, the aesthetic fascinations is everywhere" Waugh Through this de-familiarization of the natural consensus about social, cultural and politi- cal relations and systems postmodemism works within an undeniable political ground. This is the way in which the arguments of postmodernism are politically useful for feminists : as Craig Owen said, "it is precisely at the legislative frontier between what can be represented and what cannot that the postmodernist operation is being staged-not in order to transcend representation, but in order to expose that system of power that authorises certain representations while blocking, prohibiting or invalidating others.

Here, we arrive at an apparent crossing of the feminist critique of patriarchy and the postmodernist critique of representation" Foster For postmodernist representation entails certain assumptions about the common- sense naturalness and the transparency of traditional mimesis as constructed by an inter- ested, dominating and mastering subject position. Carter linked the cultivation of a marginal view to feminism and socialism and even there she avoided integration into the maisntream of these movements.

She took nothing at face value. Instead, her fiction showed her constantly challenging the boundaries of any received system of belief, and she was always playing the role of a kind of "cultural sabo- teur, using her writing to blow up comfortable assumptions and habitual patterns of thought" Gamble 4.

In this sense, it is evident that she cultivated an in- creasing interest in the defamiliarization of literary discourse by splitting the narrative into different 'texts' belonging to different realms of culture, in order to demonstrate that there is no such thing as 'the real,' but only representations, image.

Moreover, being primarily a feminist, she was particularly concerned with the way in which the concept of woman had been naturalised by culture as the silenced other. This is why she shared the view of that trend in postmodernism installed in the critique of representation, since her fundamental goal was to lay bare the fictionality of feminine identity. In the stories included in the collection American'Ghosts and Old World Wonders, pub- lished posthumously in , the narrative exploits the strategy of deconstructing legends and myths from the European heritage together with more modern imaginative construc- tions taken from American culture, emphasizing the fact that such stories, modern or old, 3 When Lyotard defined the concept of postmodernity in as a stage of disbelief toward metanarrati ves, he set the ground for a series of debates and discussions about the various narrative systems by which human culture orders and gives meaning to experience.

This issue of the role of metanarratives in the discourses of knowledge is indispensable for feminist theory and criticism, as trends of resistance, since it is the basis of their critique of patriarchy and its interconnection with capitalism, imperialism and liberal humanism. How that social fiction of my 'femininity' was created, by means outside my control, and palmed off on me as the real thing.

This investigation of the social fictions that regulate our lives.. Among them, the story "John Ford's 'Tis A Pity She's A Whore" makes itself significant in this ideological uncovering through a clever linguistic juxtaposition of two different texts written one actually, the other potentially by two different John Fords, in two different periods of history and within the conventional frames of two different genres: one being the Jacobean dramatist whose play 'Tis A Pity She's A Whore was published in , and the other, the famous American director of westerns.

These two series of broken texts enriches the externa! The story line is the same for the three texts--the tale, the script and the Jacobean play--but the change of discourse corresponding to a broken structure of alien paragraphs makes the tale an actual exemplification of Roland Barthes's definition of a 'text' as different from a 'work' in his essay "The Death of the Author": We know that a text is nota line of words releasing a single 'theological' meaning the mes- sage of the author-God but a multidimensional space in which a variety of writings, none of them original, blend and clash.

The text is a tissue of quotations drawn from innumerable centres of culture. Quoted in Marshall The literary work as a 'tissue of quotations' would be a good definition for Angela Carter' s tale, but this complexity is made much more complex, if possible, due to the intro- duction of an obtrusive narrator in first person singular whose metafictional voice com- ments on sorne aspects of the characterization and the plot, in a way which makes it the site of the ideological and feminist critique.

Intertextuality, metafiction, fragmentation and splitting are, in a way, the things that at- tract the reader's attention at first sight, and the effect is to stress the materiality of every paragraph of the tale, deconstructing the very essence of literature as projection of worlds. The different texts which are juxtaposed without any other transitional element take differ- ent forms and produce an absolute break of the logical hierarchy organizing the narrative.

The transgression in the coherence of the narrative elements derives from the narrator' s status in metafictional texts, which in no moment behaves as a cohesive element, but rather seems to change from one status to the other, reinforcing the idea of alien texts united with- out formal connectors. A while after that his wife died and was buried under two sticks nailed together to make a cross because there was no time, yet, to carve a stone.

Up here, she pillows her head upon the Arctic snow. Down there, she dips her feet in the chilly waters of the South Atlantic, home of the perpetually restless albatross. America, with her torso of a woman at the time of this story, a woman with an hour-glass waist, a waist laced so tightly it snapped in two.

And we put a bell of water there. America, with your child-bearing hips and your crotch of jungle, your swelling bosom of a nursing mother and your cold head, your cold head When 1 say the two children of the prairie They lived far out of town. He had no time for barn-raisings and church suppers. If she had lived, everything would ha ve been different, but he occupied his spare moments in chiselling her gravestone. They did not celebrate Thanksgiving for he had nothing for which to give thanks.

It was a hard life. In summer, of the heat, and how to keep flies out of the butter; in winter, of the cold. Ido not know what else she thought. The eagerness with which he embraces his fate. I imagine him mute or well nigh mute; he is the silent type, his voice creaks with disuse. He turns the soil, he breaks the wil!

His work consists of the vague, un- distinguished 'work' of such folks in the movies And 1 imagine him with an intelligence nourished only by the black book of the father, and hence cruelly circumscribed, yet dense with allusion, seeing himself as a kind of Adam and she his unavoidable and irreplaceable Eve, the unique companion of the wilderness. It wasn't like that! Not in the least like that.

Correction: will become the light by which we see North America looking at itself. Thus, the narrative is split into at least two types of representation: the one naturalizing the patriarcal myths about what means to be a woman, significantly embodied in the two texts written by male authors, and the other practising a feminist critique of representation, achieved by means of the narrator of the tale proper which assumes the role of demythologizing the identities created by the other texts: when the script presents the reality of the prairie as sorne ideal pastoral scene with shots showing the beauty of the landscape, the narrator introduces the other side of the scene by telling how hard this girl works to attend her father and son; when the piece of music called 'Love Theme' is said to start, the narrator inserts the issue of sexuality as invalidating this ideal representation of the couple's relationship.

This corresponds to an evolution in Car- ter's career related to the creation of an emphatically female narrator, presenting the world of the text from a female subject position. The irony achieved through the male and female perspective clashing one against the other shows the gap open by patriarchy between male constructs about 'The Woman' and the silenced voice of women' s experience.

It seems to be evident, in the light of this idea, that Angela Carter's selection of texts to be revisited is not at ali innocent, and the two share a visible ideological background. On the one hand, Westerns belong to a highly formal code with a strong patriarchal bias, in- vented as a kind of male epic where women are even less than secondary characters, and John Ford's approach to the formula produced the same celebration of the male hero plus a visible touch of sentimentalized domesticity; on the other, the Jacobean play is also given to sensationalism and can be considered as leading towards the melodramatic effects so typical in the films meant for women in the history of the movies melodramas, for exam- ple.

Both products naturalize women as suffering characters, secondary, of course, and objects of male desire. It is, to sum up, by means of the rewriting of these cultural products with the aid of sorne postmodernist techniques and strategies that this author is putting into practise her feminist agenda.

So I can argue that as theories of resistence, postmodernism and feminism share a key project: the reinterpretation and critica! As different as they might seem at first sight, the Jacobean drama and the western are here displayed in a way which one interacts with the other giving the impression of a unique pattern of story line, showing the workings of 'metanarratives' which feed one another and which permeates literary and film genres.

Though the main stress here is put on the deconstruction of concepts of gender and sexual- ity, Carter does not stop there, and there are sorne clues to see a criticism of capitalism and imperialism too, as it can be implied by the selection of the American western as one of the sources of her critique.

American Ghosts and Old World Wonders. London: Vintage, - - -. London: Pan- dora Press, Currie, M. London and New York: Longman, Day, A. Angela Carter. The Rational Glass. Manchester: Manchester UP, Ferguson, M. Feminism and Postmodernism. Durham and London: Duke UP, Foster, H. Postmodern Culture. London: Pluto Press, Gaggi, S. Philadelphia: U of Pennsylvania P, Gamble, S. Writingfrom the Front Line.

Edinburgh: Edinburgh UP, Hutcheon, L. The Politics of Postmodernism. London and New York: Routledge, Marchall, B. Teaching the Postmodern. Fiction and Theory. London: Routledge, McHale, B. Postmodernist Fiction. London and New York: Routledge, [ ]. Waugh, P.

Postmodernism: A Reader. London: Edward Arnold, Pero afortunadamente "la postmodernidad ha tocado fondo. Otro discurso fuerte, a priori, es el de la ciencia. Esa "ciencia pos. Una amalgama de ideas que Roma es la postmodernidad. Sin embargo, "el artista de los Y a fe que dan ganas de hacerle caso y no leer ninguna de sus novelas. Pero de nuevo en este campo la postrnodernidad parece ejercer una influencia perniciosa de diferentes maneras.

Pues porque nos sigue pareciendo un equipo de autistas. Y el lenguaje mismo puede ser excusa para juegos insospechados. Y en un trabajo de tantas citas termino con otra cita. Como dice Francisco Jarauta, quien a su vez cita el testamento de Deleuze, "el trabajo del intelectual..

Hornee Wal- pole's Castle of Ostranto is generally considered the first gothic novel, showing a fascination with the Jacobean, medieval, sentimental and sublime. After this novel, there was a proliferation of gothic motifs such as the graveyard, the castle, spectres, monsters, corpses, monks and nuns. Ever since, horror stories have changed to adapt themselves to the atmosphere, style and setting dictated by the social reality that they have encountered.

On many occasions the modern city has replaced the gothic castle and forest and the villains are now psycho-killers. The contemporary gothic still presents narratives of darkness, desire and power, although these effects are achieved through new techniques and have extended into different genres and media. This paper focuses on one of these narratives, American Psy- cho, a narrative that encompasses and combines 20th-century gothic techniques and effects, together with a sharp social critique of the decade of the 80s in America.

Most critics agree that the 20th century has seen the expansion of the gothic, which is now used in a wider range of contexts: cinema, musical videos, advertisements, comics Jancovich 83; Botting ; Punter ; Bloom 3. Clive Bloom even mentions the art deco of New York' s skyscrapers as a real-life equivalent to the gothic castles 2.

What was once a literary genre is now present in a wide range of cultural manifestations and this has pro- duced a self-awareness of the genre. Literary characters make reference to cinematic ones. Thus, saying that cinema and literature have drunk from each other for inspiration would not be too far-fetched. The first cinematic adaptations of gothic literary classics such as Mary Shelley's Frankenstein; or, the Modern Prometheus , Bram Stoker's Dracula or the adaptations of Stephen King's novels seem to confirm one side of this theory.

On the other hand, these last decades have also seen how the cinematic tradition of the slasher movies, such as The Texas Chainsaw Massacre , Henry, Portrait of a Serial Killer or Halloween among others, has influenced many literary writers. American Psycho is the best known novel of Bret Easton Ellis. It reflects with great accuracy how the gothic traits have extended to embrace also other characteristics mainly developed through cinema, magazines, newspapers. The book reflects these tenden- cies through its own uncertain generic form, which is a trait typical of postmodern gothic 1Gothic may produce two effects: terror and horror.

Terror is a mental effect, an elevation of the soul. On the other hand, horror is more dangerous since there is no elevation of the soul but a physical reaction. Terror developed especially in the first manifestations of the genre, nowadays horror is more widespread Botting Jean-Francois Lyotard claimed that we live a post- modern condition, which is marked by a crisis in the status of knowledge in Western socie- ties.

Overarching and totalising thought has been rejected for a plurality of stories and voices, favouring heterogeneity. Out of a postmodern condition a postmodern gothic is developed, in this way there is not one type of gothic but many. The successful genre of the 19th century had to change and adapt itself to these new social situations.

Fred Botting talks about postmodern gothic and states that one of its main characteristics is its uncertainty not only at the leve! This paper will concentrate on these two types of uncertainty, both at the leve! At the Ievel of generic form the book combines characteristics coming from different sources. The book clearly draws from the language of cinema. Reproducing the plot of many slasher movies and serial-killer movies, American Psycho is the story of Patrick Bateman, a rich white heterosexual yuppie that conceals a sexist, racist, xenophobic serial killer.

His victims are mainly women, black people, beggars, children, homosexuals, that is to say, those that he considers under him in his particular social scale. Both the murders and the sexual encounters are explained in a very graphic way, very much indebted to the slasher movie tradition. Sorne of these movies are actually mentioned in the book, like Body Double or The Texas Chainsaw Massacre , together with other invented, very explicit titles such as Blond, Hot, Dead , Bloodhungry or The Toolbox Murders Patrick is ali the time renting films and, in fact, one of his most repeated excuses to leave a place or someone is that he has to return sorne videotapes.

His favourite fihns are slasher and pornographic movies, films which will inspire his horrific actions. There are other cinematic traits deployed in the book such as the narrator' s use of "a slow dissolve" 8 to separate one scene from another or the "slow motion" when he at- tempts to murder Luis, a homosexual in love with him.

He even imagines sorne situations as they would be depicted in a film: 1 am so used to imagining everything happening the way it occurs in movies, visualizing things falling somehow into the shape of events on a screen, that 1 almost hear the swelling of an orchestra, can almost hallucinate the camera panning low around us, fireworks burst- ing in slow motion overhead, the seventy-millimeter image of her lips parting and the sub- sequent murmur of 'I want you' in Dolby sound.

His sexual encounters with two women at a time are based on pornographic movies he previously rents. He finds inspiration for his murders not only in the slasher movies he rents, but also in TV programs like 'The Patty Winters Show' or in the daily news of yellow newspapers. American Psycho not only reflects the 'gothic' language and codes of slasher films, it also draws from the language of other media that ha ve incorporated the gothic language to their own systems.

The yellow newspapers have taken the language of horror and sorne of their headlines could be titles for horror tales. In fact, in the 18th century a very close con- nection between the yellow press and the gothic already existed. In American Psycho, Price, one of Bateman's yuppie friends, makes a summary of that day's newspaper: 'In one issue--in one issue--let's see here Ellis is of course exaggerating the language of the yellow press to make readers aware of how far society has gone.

The feeling left is that these tilles of chapters in the book could also be yellow press headlines. Television has also embraced the language of horror and this is reflected in the narra- tion through the invented "The Patty Winters Show," which clearly parodies real chat shows Iike "The Oprah Winfrey Show.

The titles vary from the super- ficial: "Perfumes, Lipsticks, Makeups," "Aerobic Exercise," "Salad Bars" to the most hor- rific subjects: 'Toddler-murders," "Concentration Camp Survivors" or even one about a man who set his daughter on fire while she was giving birth.

The juxtaposition of these two kinds of subject implies that society does not really make a difference between the two, at the same time showing that the 'horrific' subject of American Psycho is as horrific as the newspaper headlines' or the TV programs' contents. Nevertheless, contemporary horror is not only present in cinema, newspapers or television. Sex and horror became especially linked in film between and and American horror writers responded to this challenge by adopting this trend in their writings Nicholson American Psycho also uses the pornographic language of torture and abuse and, ironically enough, the book has been most harshly attacked for using this kind of code, a code that has been present in porn magazines for a long time.

As has been seen so far, in our society the language of horror has penetrated many dif- ferent cultural manifestations and American Psycho combines ali these languages with the most frivolous superficiality. Not getting a good table for dinner affects these yuppies more than reading the horrific headlines of the newspapers. This is Patrick's reaction when ar- riving atan ultra-fashionable restaurant: ''l'm on the verge of tears by the time we arrive at Pastels since I'm positive we won't get seated but the table is good, and relief that is almost tidal in scope washes over me in an awesome wave" After being bombarded by the horrors depicted on TV, magazines or newspapers, society is immune to them and prefers to care about superficial things that seem more real to them.

The reader may recognise this attitude and identify with it and this uncanny recognition is as horrific as reading about Patrick's murders. For Mark Jancovich this is the postmodern condition, a 'survivalist' response and isolationist position from which people "seek to hold on to what little is left to them" The postmodern gothic reflects this new kind of horror, this postmodern condi- tion, which is reflected and channelled through the figure of the psychopath.

This uncertainty is also present ata narrative leve!. Patrick Bateman may be a serial killer but he is at the same time the sym- bol of success in the 80s. Patrick Bateman is rich, handsomehe is repeatedly mistaken far a model or movie star-and successful with women--most women he meets seem to be attracted towards him. He masters the rules of fashion--his friends are repeatedly asking him what to wear or how to combine their clothes--he obtains reservations for the best restaurants and is admitted in the best night-clubs.

He is a member of an exclusive health club, curiously enough called 'Xclusive,' and he lives in an expensive building, with Tom Cruise far a neighbour. Far a society based on appearances Patrick Bateman represents the American dream, the utmost success. Jean Baudrillard makes an accurate description of this society obsessed with the cult of the body: dieting, body-building, jogging, with a 'look' based on clothes.

This society dreams of "fashion, the latest styles, idols, the play of images, travel for its own sake, advertising In short, the orgy" Bateman represents the idea of success that the society of the 80s in America had, he should be the hero of the novel but, as Mark Jancovich points out, the traditional gothic hero capable of combating the monster and protecting the victims has disappeared, the main characters are now the monsters and their victims 86 , and that is what Patrick Bate- man is.

The reader feels the alluring power of Bateman and may even identify with or admire a life- style that the 80s fed in America. Even the characters of the book think that Patrick is "the boy next door" Jancovich points out that this may be so because the forces of rational control become the source of social problems. Supposedly normal families breed abnormal psychologies, policemen are corrupted, etc.

It is the very society that has crowned Bateman and his life style the one that suffers the conse- quences, the victim of its own superficial system of judgement. The result of this uncertainty is that these narratives do not ha ve a definite closure, since effective social action against the monster is impossible without changing the very founda- tions of that society. Jancovich marks this as a movement towards apocalypse Patrick Bateman is not caught at the end, he is not punished.

There is a detective investigating one of Patrick's victims: Paul Owen. Owen is another yuppie, not by coincidence a Jew, who has obtained an account Patrick wanted. The detective not only does not arrest Patrick but actually likes him. The most ironic aspect of this situation is the fact that Patrick confesses his double nature on many occasions throughout the book.

However, people are so busy with their narcissistic concerns that they do not seem to hear what Patrick says. My essence is eluding her" The sarne happens when he tells Arrnstrong, another yuppie friend: "My life is a living hell He tells Owen ''I'rn utterly insane" and "I like to dissect girls" but nobody seerns to care.

The situation becornes ridiculous when, after a chase, Patrick thinks he is going to get caught and confesses ali his rnurders in Harold's telephone rna- chine. He is not caught but he does not need to deny what he said because Harold thinks it was a joke, he says: "Jesus, Davis.

Yes, that was hilarious. That was you, was it? A society that has created a rnonster like Patrick cannot destroy hirn. Classical gothic rnon- sters like Frankenstein or Dracula were destroyed at the end, restoring norrnality and stating a more or less clear moral. The rnonsters were freaks and society was able to destroy thern. However, in this new forro of gothic norrnality cannot be restored because norrnality is what Patrick represents, the normal has becorne the abnorrnal.

The only solution is to de- stroy the whole social order, which is obviously irnpossible. The ending is not an exit because horror is present in the society we live in, a society we cannot escape by closing the book, by closing American Psycho. American Psycho is thus a postrnodern product dealing with a postrnodern world.

For Norrnan K. Denzin this postrnodern world is characterised "by the cultivation of conspicu- ous consurnption consurner lifestyles Youth, health, and sexuality have becorne prerniurn values, the only values, and this is sornething reflected in American Psycho.

The book is a social critique of the selfish and divided society of the 80s in Arner- ica and to do so, the book uses a genre that allows the possibility of speaking the 'unspeak- able. The genre has changed to adapt itself to the different ideologies and readers but it has never lost its power to rnove and arouse the people's con- science. American Psycho can be read in two ways. At a superficial leve! There is no 'easy' explanation for Baternan's behaviour. His farnily was not poor, he was not abused as a child, there is no psychological explanation to account for his behaviour, as rnay have been the case in Hitchcock's film Psycho.

The only explanation is that the society in which he lives has rnade hirn so. At the end of the book he says so hirn- self: Why? Freud's idea of the uncanny gets re-enacted in its sharpest way. The familiar that we had tried to repress, the drawbacks of a society too obsessed with appearances come back. We recognise the homeless people, the poor, the prostitutes and we feel real horror when we realise everything we share with Bateman, with the monster of the novel.

Bloom, Clive, ed. London: MacMillan, Botting, Fred. Denzin, Norman K. London: Sage Publications, Ellis, Bret Easton. American Psycho. London: Picador, Freud, Sigmund. Penguin Freud Library. Harmondsworth: Penguin, Jancovich, Mark. London: Batsford, Lyotard, Jean-Francois. The Postmodern Condition. Nicholson, John.

Clive Bloom. London: Mac- Millan, Punter, David. The Literature of Terror. Vol 2 of The Modern Gothic. This imita- tion is seemingly accurate, but in fact distorted, with conscious and recognizable humor. Lehmann 3 Leading on from this notion of parody as "a distorted irnitation of a known text with conscious and recognizable humour" and also the one given by Linda Hutcheon in A Poet- ics of Postmodernism "repetition with difference, not necessarily comic" , this paper is going to deal with the analysis of parody firstly regarding previous war American novels, secondly as represented by Yossarian, the protagonist of Heller's Catch , thirdly in the story of the novel "the romance quest" and finally in relation to Ernest Heming- way' s A Farewell to Arms Throughout the paper I will show how the traditional novel is transformed through the use of parody, the burlesque and language.

Ali these elements create a perfect atmosphere for the creation of a novel which has been described as absurdist for its use of an absurdist theme and also of absurdist techniques, including it in the trend of absurdist writers from the s in America. As a consequence of my analysis, it will be shown that what is apparently a comic novel, with the constant use of the so-called black humour, is in fact a very serious protest against the powerful and bureaucratic institutions, especially the military forces, which deprive individuals of their own identity.

Thus, although readers might find themselves smiling or laughing while reading the novel, they must take into account that the message is quite serious. However, the ending of the novel is not overtly pessimistic, even optimistic as I will discuss later on , because after ali there is sorne way to escape the inner circle of Catch In the end, I will conclude with the idea that Heller' s novel shows how Yossarian be- comes aware of the power of humans to produce symbols "ad infinitum" and also of the absurd lack of meaning in daily life.

These and other traits of the novel could lead to con- sider Catch as a post-modernist novel. In fact, Heller himself struggles against the stiff limits of language, systems and codes, and parody becomes metafictional since there is self-reflexiveness: Heller becomes a mirror of Yossarian fighting against the absurd norms in Catch These novels dealt with the facts of war directly or else with its deep consequences and their authors depicted the life of the troops in the trenches as a result of their own experience in the war.

These novels described the horrors of war and also its folly, since the enemy was also found on one's own side. Unlike traditional war novels, Catch ironises in its pres- entation of war as something paradoxically positive and lucky, as a "way out," 1 as Doc Daneeka and his helpers see it: Fortunately, just when things were blackest, the war broke out.

On the one hand, Yossarian has no friends, except for Dunbar and maybe Doc Daneeka. He has just acquaintances and al- though he is surrounded by people, there is not any effectual communication because lan- guage has become illogical. On the other hand, the advanced technical war equipment is substituted for trade items, as in the case of McWatt's bedsheet, used for Milo's purposes or when Yossarian's B turns out to have a tight crawlway to escape through it.

In fact, Malcolm Bradbury described Catch as "an anti-war novel about World War II as a grotesque and absurd fantasy" that represents "contemporary America. As a result, there was a fantastic world of facts and a new hyper-realism towards reportage and fictionality, away from real- ism. Black humour appeared to explore the absurdity of contemporary society and of the rational responses to it.

This new fiction was prone then to parody, irony and metafiction, as a way to chalienge meaning. In addition to this, Catch was turned into a film by Paramount Pictures in and it was also described asan anti-war satire of epic propor- tions. Sorne critics have pointed out that Catch is a war novel but that war is not its true subject. Thus, Tonny Tanner wrote that it was "less about the tactical struggle of two ar- mies than the struggle for survival of the individual within his own society" Then for Tanner, Yossarian is a hero not of war but of society since he manages to escape the stiff military organisation of parades and so on.

Tanner sees the characters as cartoon-strip gro- tesque personages 2 and there is black humour because Y ossarian becomes "a manipulable and disposable thing" Foliowing Tanner, A. Hilfer claims that "the Second World War is the setting of Catch, but not its true subject. The Cold War and the political 1 The mode of the novels written after World War 11 in America, like Catch, changed mainly because of sorne great events happened between and , such as the passing from the concept of "hero" to that of "victim" or the self-questioning of a triumphant country after Vietnam or the l s upheavals.

Harris, the use of caricature shows rejection of the realistic characterization's belief that human beings can be accurately formulated From Horror to Humour This analysis coincides with Joseph Heller' s apparent intentions of writing about "the contemporary regimented business society depicted against the background of universal sorrow and in- evitable death that is the lot of ali of us" Secondly, the figure of Yossarian can be regarded as a parody of the war hero because he is not a hero of war but of a stiff contemporary society.

As a matter of fact, for Hilfer, Yossarian is a s hero because he is aware of the absurd logic of that war and not be- cause of his humanism. This idea reinforces the vision of the novel as a parody of previ- ous war narratives, since Catch presents an image of war which is very different from that shown in American war literature like Fenimore Cooper's The Last of the Mohicans, Crane's The Red Badge of Courage or Hemingway's A Farewell to Arms. Yossarian is a weak existential character to stand a war and from the very beginning of the book he tries to avoid flying, pretending to be ill with a liver ailment in order to stay more at hospital.

He is not a self-confident man and he is confused about his own identity. Not surprisingly, he thinks that war provides him with a heroic mask and he plays with different names acting as censoring officer, such as "Washington lrving" or "John Milton. Fortiori" : The startled patientjumped down to the floor at Yossarian's command and ran away. Yossa- rian climbed up into his bed and became Warrant Officer Homer Lumley, who felt like vo- miting and was covered suddenly with a clammy sweat.

He slept for an hour and wanted to be Yossarian again. There are also more examples when Yossarian takes someone else's personality, as when he tries to imitate a soldier who saw everything twice or when Doc Daneeka asks him to be an Italian man who has just died and whose family has come to visit him.

In the end, Yos- sarian' s indefinition and weakness leads him to be a puppet in the hands of an absurd mili- tary organisation ruled by the linguistic trap denominated "catch," which deceives men increasing the flying missions constantly and avoiding their escaping the war.

The culmi- nation of this loss of identity takes place when Yossarian is wounded in his leg and then the nightmare of non-identity, announced previously with the soldier in white, becomes real: 3Role playing, masked identities or impersonation become favourite motifs in the novels written by sorne of the most celebrated postmodem American writers of the l s, such as John Barth or Thomas Pynchon.

The issue has obvious existentialist roots. It's no different than a gear ora bedpan. The Army has invested a lot of money to make you an airplane pilot, and you've no right to disobey the doctor's orders. He cannot distinguish reality and fiction any more and so, for instance, he sees Hungry Joe's nightmare about the cat on his face become true. Besides, the protagonist has an ominous name "destined to serve as Colonel Cath- cart' s nemesis" that reveals that he is not suitable for Colonel Cathcart's squadron, because he is a "menacing problem" and hadan "execrable, ugly name": Yossarian--the very sight of the name made him shudder.

There were so many esses in it. It just had to be subversive. It was like the word subversive itself. It was an odious, alien, distasteful name, all like such clean, crisp, honest, American names as Cathcart, Peckem and Dreedle. He tried to rhake himself grow calm.

Yossarian was nota common name; per- haps there were not really three Yossarians but only two Yossarians, or maybe even only one Yossarian--but that really made no difference! You're the only one I know that I can really trust.

That's why 1 wish you'd try to be of more help to me. I really was disappointed when you ran off with those two tramps in Catania yesterday. He is not at ease in that world and that is why he needs to escape at the end of the book. Yossarian could become a perfect hero if the world he lives in were not "a boiling chaos in which everything was in proper order.

Yossarian also defies categorisation. According to sorne critics like Douglas Day, Yossarian can be seen as a "coward, a man who throws away ali honour, sense of moral obligation and self-respect" Nussey. Yossarian does not want to fly any more because he sees every day as "a dangerous mission against mortality. Yossarian was the best man in the group at evasive action, but had no idea why" Little by little he becomes a postmodernist figure who is tired of fighting to save his country and who realises that time has come to save himself.

Then for Yosssarian, it is he who is in danger and not his country and thus his mission is only to come down alive every time he flies. He does not follow the traditional values of patriarehy represented in the army and Colonel Cathcart regards him as a threat to the army. Yossarian "displays" a cowardly behaviour and becomes aware of the power of language to build reality, that is "catch Apart from this, Yossarian is diminished to an anti-hero as a consequence of the ironie comparisons between him and other charaeters regarded as real heroes of war, such as Hungry J oe, whom the protagonist considers the biggest hero of the Air Force beeause he had flown many combat tours of duty.

Harvermeyer, Milo, Danby, Pilchard and Wren are al so models of good patrio tic soldiers that stand out in eontrast to Yossarian' s philosophy of self-survival, but they are also parodied beeause they give absurd reasons to go on fighting in the war, sueh as obedienee to their superiors.

They represent the most clear example of the powerful manipulation of identity exerted by the army. In addition, the use of free indirect style appears in order to stress the dissolution of limits between the focal- isations of the narrator and of Yossarian. At the end, Yossarian, who understands ali this absurd logic of war and shares it, dis- covers that war does not offer any opportunity for hernie aets see Hungry Joe asan exam- ple.

War is nota place for hernie and noble gestures because wars are caused by men and can be stopped by them. That is why Yossarian changes and instead of pretending to be a hero as he did at the beginning of the book "to everyone he knew he wrote that he was going on a very dangerous mission," 8 , he ehooses to reject Colonel Catheart and Colonel Korn's deal to become a "real" or official hero in chapter 42 and he says that he "earned that meda!

Apart from that, the novel can also be approached as a parody of the "romance quest. For Denniston, Catch- 22 resembled a parody of the war romance rather than a novel beeause the eharaeters were idealised types rather than individuals, there were eonfliets, masked identities and, more important, the structure of the novel was that of a quest.

The ideals of the war romance are shown in reverse. Yossarian goes through the three stages of the hernie quest; first, he has a series of minor trials in the first thirty-eight ehapters, where he tries to avoid death. Then he faces the major conflict in chapter 39, "The Eternal City," where he goes absent without leave to Rome and tries to find Nately's whore's kid sister. Yossarian is compared to Christ then: The night was filled with horrors, and he thought he knew how Christ must have felt as he walked through the world, like a psychiatrist through a ward full of nuts, like a victim through a prison full of thieves.

What a welcome sight a leper must ha ve been! Finally, unlike in the romance, the hero is not elevated but mocked because he thinks he can be free rejecting Cathcart's offer and going to Sweden. But Milo's deals can reach Sweden easily and besides Sweden's coldness is associated with Snowden's death. There- fore, the situation goes back to the beginning and Yossarian is still immersed amid the forces of chaos, trying to get free. Finally, taking into account the modern definition of parody that Linda Hutcheon gives "repetition with difference but need not also be comic" , 4 the whole of Catch could act as a parody of Hemingway's A Farewell to Arms because there are many elements that are repeated and parodied, such as!

They deal with World War 1and11, but in the end they end up being about the same war, fought for economic reasons. Like the setting of this novel, the characters, too', are fictitious. Catch 22, 5 None of the characters in this book is a living person, norare the units or military organisa- tions mentioned actual units or organisations. The first time Yossarian saw the chaplain he fell madly in! But there are many more similarities between both works: Frederick Henry and Yossarian do not Iike war and they have conversations with priests.

They also prefer to stay at hospitals and both fall in! Yossarian's episode trying to draw a tourniquet around Snowden's thigh is also a reflection of the situation between Henry and his friend Passini: It was Passini and when 1 touched him he scream,ed. His legs were towards me and 1 saw in the dark and the light that they were both smashed above the knee. One leg was gone and the other was held by tendons and part of the trouser and the stump twitched and jerked as 4 Hutcheon writes in A Poetics of Postmodemism: "What 1 mean by "parody" here-as elsewhere in this study-is not the ridiculing imitation of the standard theories and definitions that are rooted in eighteenth-century theories of wit.

The collective weight of parodie practice suggests a redefinition of parody as repetition with critica! Hutcheon's notion of parody also appears in Margare! I tried to get closer to Passini to try to put a tourniquet on the legs but I could not move. Yossarian rejects Colo- nel' s Cathcart's offer to become a hero, as Henry does: 'You will be decorated. They want to get you the medaglia d'argento but perhaps they can get only the brnnze. They say if you can prnve you did any hernie act you can get the silver.

Otherwise it will be the brnnze. Tell me exactly what happened. Did you do any hernie act? You must have done something hernie either before or after. Remember carefu- Jly. The whores are taken away in Hemingway's story, Henry also goes absent without leave and he wants to escape to Switzerland. Therefore, Catch could be regarded as a parodie imitation of Hemingway's novel but there are important differences as well: Yossarian is a soldier and Henry is in the Ambulance Corps.

Then Yossarian' s quest is for survival whereas Henry is a bit more distant from war and he wants Catherine's! These differences highlight the parodie component in the novel. To conclude, Catch presents Yossarian as a character who is the inverse of the war hero. None the less, he could also be regarded as a hero out of the war context: he becomes a hero of language in the sense that he is the only one to see the madness around him: Catch did not exist, he was positive of that, but it made no difference.

What did matter was that everyone thought it existed, and that was much worse, for there was no object or text to ridicule or refute, to accuse, criticize, attack, amend, hate, revile, spit at, rip to shreds, trample upon or bum up. The spirit gone, man is garbage. That was Snowden's secret. Ripeness was ali" Yossarian is in a higher leve! This can be seen in Hemingway's novel, where roen go to war in order to show how powerful their country is and how male they are my emphasis.

However, Yossarian was "crazy" but "that crazy bastard may be the only sane one left," as it is said in the novel. Yossarian knows what the war means: But Yossarian couldn't be happy, even though the Texan didn't want him to be, because outside the hospital there was still nothing funny going on. The only thing going on was a war, and no one seemed to notice but Yossarian and Dunbar. And when Yossarian tried to remind people, they drew away from him and thought he was crazy. Then to play with the notion of Catch is an escape to understand the novel.

Thus parody is also meta- fictional as Linda Hutcheon suggested and there is self-reflexiveness, as it happens in post-modernist texts such as Thornas Pynchon's The Crying of Lot 49, with the Trystero system, or the game in Sam Shepard's "The Tooth of Crime.

Unlike the novelists belonging to the first half of this century, Heller used the conventional novelistic methods ironically and he used absurdist techniques to deal with the absurdist content. Sorne critics like Charles B. Harris write that the reflective use of burlesque and parody shows that reality cannot be ordered through literature the art forrn is not ordered either , because there are multiple realities, as a con- sequence of the influence of Einstein relativity and quantum physics.

Parody becomes then the best way to represent these multiple realities, because one re- ality gets questioned by another. Thus, at the end readers should find laughter as a response to the blackness of modern existence depicted by Heller and they should not try to look for sense in reality.

Like in Steme's novel, Catch shows problems with time; times are divided into that of the telling and that of the events, one is chronological and the other psychological. Bradbury, Malcolm. The Modern American Novel. Oxford: OUP, Frye, Northrop. Anatomy of Criticism: Four Essays. Princeton, N. Harris, Charles B. Contemporary American Novelists of the Absurd. New Haven, Conn. Heller, Joseph. Hemingway, Ernest.

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Forex bank what where when Waugh, Patricia. After being bombarded by the horrors depicted on TV, magazines or newspapers, society is immune to them and prefers to care about superficial things that seem more real to them. Fortiori" : The startled patientjumped down to the floor at Yossarian's command and ran away. Yossarian does not want to fly any more because he sees every day as "a dangerous mission against mortality. If the implication is that there is one piyasa takvimi forexworld of in- formation piyasa takvimi forexworld is everything and another which is nothing; the irony of the novel depends on a basic inversion of which is which. Bloom, Clive, ed. Sin embargo, "el artista de los
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Vehicle for forex 2016 The Politics of Postmodernism. The development of scientific beliefs is also in correspondence with a certain departure from previous realist strategies in the history of the English novel. Harmond- sworth: Penguin, On the other hand, horror is more dangerous since there is no elevation of the soul but a physical reaction. Hornee Wal- pole's Castle of Ostranto is generally considered the first gothic novel, showing a fascination with the Jacobean, medieval, sentimental and sublime. This revision of the past is also markedly thomas cook forex puneta, because the stories and images cre- ated in this new light are not neutral, though they might sometimes seem so 'aestheticized' as to piyasa takvimi forexworld the risk of being regarded as mere narcissistic products. These and other traits of the novel could lead to con- sider Catch as a post-modernist novel.
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