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Архив рубрики: Economic indicators on forex

Best forex entry point indicator valve

best forex entry point indicator valve

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A method and system are provided for remotely determining whether the latch assemblies are latched or unlatched. In one embodiment, a comparator may compare a measured fluid value of the latch assembly hydraulic fluid with a predetermined fluid value to determine whether the latch assembly is latched or unlatched. In another embodiment, a comparator may compare a first measured fluid value of the latch assembly hydraulic fluid with a second measured fluid value of the hydraulic fluid to determine whether the latch assembly is latched or unlatched.

In another embodiment, an electrical switch may be positioned with a retainer member, and the switch output interpreted to determine whether the latch assembly is latched or unlatched. In another embodiment, a mechanical valve may be positioned with a piston, and a fluid value measured to determine whether the latch assembly is latched or unlatched.

In another embodiment, a latch position indicator sensor, preferably an analog inductive proximity sensor, may be positioned with, but without contacting, a piston or a retainer member, and the sensor output interpreted to determine whether the latch assembly is latched or unlatched.

The sensor may preferably detect the distance between the sensor and the targeted piston or retainer member. In one embodiment, the surface of the piston or retainer member targeted by the sensor may be inclined. In another embodiment, the surface of the piston or retainer member targeted by the sensor may contain more than one metal.

The sensor may also detect movement of the targeted piston or retainer member. In another embodiment, more than one sensor may be positioned with a piston or a retainer member for redundancy. A better understanding of the present invention can be obtained when the following detailed description of various disclosed embodiments is considered in conjunction with the following drawings, in which:. Although the following is sometimes described in terms of an offshore platform environment, all offshore and onshore embodiments are contemplated.

Additionally, although the following is described in terms of oilfield drilling, the disclosed embodiments can be used in other operating environments and for drilling for non-petroleum fluids. Turning to FIG. As illustrated in FIG. Other BOP stack configurations are contemplated and the configuration of these BOP stacks is determined by the work being performed. The rotating control device is shown below the rotary table in a moon pool of a fixed offshore drilling rig, such as a jackup or platform rig.

The remainder of the drilling rig is not shown for clarity of the figure and is not significant to this application. Two diverter conduits and extend from the riser nipple The diverter conduits and are typically rigid conduits; however, flexible conduits or lines are contemplated. With the rotating control device latched with the riser nipple , the combination of the rotating control device and riser nipple functions as a rotatable marine diverter.

In this configuration, the operator can rotate drill pipe not shown while the rotating marine diverter is closed or connected to a choke, for managed pressure or underbalanced drilling. The present invention could be used with the closed-loop circulating systems as disclosed in Pub. As shown in FIG. Again, this conduit can be connected to a choke.

The size, shape, and configuration of the housing section and latch assembly are exemplary and illustrative only, and other sizes, shapes, and configurations can be used to allow connection of the latch assembly to a riser. In addition, although the hydraulic latch assembly is shown connected to a nipple, the latch assembly can be connected to any conveniently configured section of a wellbore tubular or riser.

A landing formation of the housing section engages a shoulder of the rotating control device , limiting downhole movement of the rotating control device when positioning the rotating control device The relative position of the rotating control device and housing section and latching assembly are exemplary and illustrative only, and other relative positions can be used.

A retainer member extends radially inwardly from the latch assembly , engaging a latching formation in the rotating control device , latching the rotating control device with the latch assembly and therefore with the housing section bolted with the latch assembly However, other types and shapes of retainer rings are contemplated. In other embodiments, the retainer member can be a plurality of dog, key, pin, or slip members, spaced apart and positioned around the latch assembly , as illustrated by dog members A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, and I in FIG.

In embodiments where the retainer member is a plurality of dog or key members, the dog or key members can optionally be spring-biased. The number, shape, and arrangement of dog members illustrated in FIG. Although a single retainer member is described herein, a plurality of retainer members can be used.

The retainer member has a cross section sufficient to engage the latching formation positively and sufficiently to limit axial movement of the rotating control device and still engage with the latch assembly An annular piston is shown in a first position in FIG. Movement of the piston from a second position to the first position compresses or moves the retainer member radially inwardly to the engaged or latched position shown in FIG.

Although shown in FIG. As best shown in the dual hydraulic latch assembly embodiment of FIG. The retainer member and latching formation FIG. A second or auxiliary piston can be used to urge the first piston into the second position to unlatch the rotating control device , providing a backup unlatching capability. The shape and configuration of pistons and are exemplary and illustrative only, and other shapes and configurations can be used.

Returning now to FIG. Increasing the relative pressure on port causes the piston to move to the first position, latching the rotating control device to the latch assembly with the retainer member Increasing the relative pressure on port causes the piston to move to the second position, allowing the rotating control device to unlatch by allowing the retainer member to expand or move and disengage from the rotating control device Connecting hydraulic lines not shown in the figure for clarity to ports and allows remote actuation of the piston The second or auxiliary annular piston is also shown as hydraulically actuated using hydraulic port and its corresponding gun-drilled passageway.

Increasing the relative pressure on port causes the piston to push or urge the piston into the second or unlatched position, should direct pressure via port fail to move piston for any reason. The hydraulic ports , and and their corresponding passageways shown in FIG. In addition, other techniques for remote actuation of pistons and , other than hydraulic actuation, are contemplated for remote control of the latch assembly Thus, the rotating control device illustrated in FIG.

An assortment of seals is used between the various elements described herein, such as wiper seals and O-rings, known to those of ordinary skill in the art. For example, each piston preferably has an inner and outer seal to allow fluid pressure to build up and force the piston in the direction of the force. Likewise, seals can be used to seal the joints and retain the fluid from leaking between various components.

In general, these seals will not be further discussed herein. For example, seals A and B seal the rotating control device to the latch assembly Other seal types can be used to provide the desired sealing. As with the single latch assembly embodiment illustrated in FIG.

The retainer member latches the rotating control device in a latching formation, shown as an annular groove , in an outer housing of the rotating control device in FIG. The use and shape of annular groove is exemplary and illustrative only and other latching formations and formation shapes can be used.

The dual hydraulic latch assembly includes the pistons and and retainer member of the single latch assembly embodiment of FIG. The various embodiments of the dual hydraulic latch assembly discussed below as they relate to the first latch subassembly can be equally applied to the single hydraulic latch assembly of FIG. In addition to the first latch subassembly comprising the pistons and and the retainer member , the dual hydraulic latch assembly embodiment illustrated in FIG.

In this embodiment, the latch assembly is itself latchable to a housing section , shown as a riser nipple, allowing remote positioning and removal of the latch assembly In such an embodiment, the housing section and dual hydraulic latch assembly are preferably matched with each other, with different configurations of the dual hydraulic latch assembly implemented to fit with different configurations of the housing section A common embodiment of the rotating control device can be used with multiple dual hydraulic latch assembly embodiments; alternately, different embodiments of the rotating control device can be used with each embodiment of the dual hydraulic latch assembly and housing section As with the first latch subassembly, the piston moves to a first or latching position.

However, the retainer member instead expands radially outwardly, as compared to inwardly, from the latch assembly into a latching formation in the housing section Shown in FIG. As with pistons and , the shape and configuration of piston is exemplary and illustrative only and other shapes and configurations of piston can be used. In other embodiments, the retainer member can be a plurality of dog, key, pin, or slip members, positioned around the latch assembly The retainer member has a cross section sufficient to engage positively the latching formation to limit axial movement of the latch assembly and still engage with the latch assembly Shoulder of the rotating control device in this embodiment lands on a landing formation of the latch assembly , limiting downward or downhole movement of the rotating control device in the latch assembly As stated above, the latch assembly can be manufactured for use with a specific housing section, such as housing section , designed to mate with the latch assembly In contrast, the latch assembly of FIG.

Cables not shown can be connected to eyelets or rings A and B mounted on the rotating control device to allow positioning of the rotating control device before and after installation in a latch assembly. The use of cables and eyelets for positioning and removal of the rotating control device is exemplary and illustrative, and other positioning apparatus and numbers and arrangements of eyelets or other attachment apparatus, such as discussed below, can be used.

Similarly, the latch assembly can be positioned in the housing section using cables not shown connected to eyelets A and B, mounted on an upper surface of the latch assembly Additionally, other techniques for mounting cables and other techniques for positioning the unlatched latch assembly , such as discussed below, can be used.

As desired by the operator of a rig, the latch assembly can be positioned or removed in the housing section with or without the rotating control device Thus, should the rotating control device fail to unlatch from the latch assembly when desired, for example, the latched rotating control device and latch assembly can be unlatched from the housing section and removed as a unit for repair or replacement.

In other embodiments, a shoulder of a running tool, tool joint A of a string of pipe, or any other shoulder on a tubular that could engage lower stripper rubber can be used for positioning the rotating control device instead of the above-discussed eyelets and cables. An exemplary tool joint A of a string of pipe is illustrated in phantom in FIG. As best shown in FIGS. The bearing assembly is similar to the Weatherford-Williams model rotating control device, now available from Weatherford International, Inc.

Preferably, a rotating control device with two spaced-apart seals, such as stripper rubbers, is used to provide redundant sealing. The major components of the bearing assembly are described in U. Generally, the bearing assembly includes a top rubber pot that is sized to receive a top stripper rubber or inner member seal ; however, the top rubber pot and seal can be omitted, if desired.

Preferably, a bottom stripper rubber or inner member seal is connected with the top seal by the inner member of the bearing assembly The outer member of the bearing assembly is rotatably connected with the inner member. In addition, the seals and can be passive stripper rubber seals, as illustrated, or active seals as known by those of ordinary skill in the art.

In the embodiment of a single hydraulic latch assembly , such as illustrated in FIG. In addition, the accumulator allows the bearings not shown to be self-lubricating. An additional accumulator , as shown in FIG.

Both the first retainer member and the second retainer member are shown in their unlatched position, with pistons and in their respective second, or unlatched, position. Sections and form an outer housing for the latch assembly , while sections and form an inner housing, illustrated in FIG. Other types of connections can be used to connect the inner housing and outer housing of the latch assembly Furthermore, the number, shape, relative sizes, and structural interrelationships of the sections , , and are exemplary and illustrative only and other relative sizes, numbers, shapes, and configurations of sections, and arrangements of sections can be used to form inner and outer housings for the latch assembly The inner housings and and the outer housings and form chambers and , respectively.

Pistons and are slidably positioned in chamber and piston is slidably positioned in chamber The relative size and position of chambers and are exemplary and illustrative only. In particular, some embodiments of the latch assembly can have the relative position of chambers and reversed, with the first latch subassembly of pistons , , and retainer member being lower relative to FIG. The force exerted between the tapered surfaces and compresses the retainer member radially inwardly to engage the groove Similarly, the piston is axially aligned in an offset manner from the retainer member by an amount sufficient to engage a tapered surface on the inner periphery of the retainer member with a corresponding tapered surface on the outer periphery of the piston The force exerted between the tapered surfaces and expands the retainer member radially outwardly to engage the groove Although no piston is shown for urging piston similar to the second or auxiliary piston used to disengage the rotating control device from the latch assembly , it is contemplated that an auxiliary piston not shown to urge piston from the first, latched position to the second, unlatched position could be used, if desired.

In FIG. Hydraulic fluid pressure in passageways and the port for passageway is not shown move pistons and upward relative to the figure, allowing retainer member to move radially outwardly and retainer member to move radially inwardly to unlatch the rotating control device from the latch assembly and the latch assembly from the housing section While no direct manipulation is required in the illustrated embodiments of FIGS.

In FIGS. However, other positions for the connection ports can be used, such as on the top surface of the riser nipple as shown in FIG. Therefore, the position of the hydraulic ports and corresponding passageways shown in FIGS.

In particular, although FIGS. Hydraulic pressure in passageway port not shown and move pistons and to their latched position, urging retainer members and to their respective latched positions. Hydraulic passageway provides fluid pressure to actuate the piston Furthermore, although FIGS.

This variety of positioning is achieved since each of the hydraulic passageways , , , , and can be selectively and separately pressurized. A passage extends through the sidewall of the housing section between a wellbore W or an inward surface of the housing section to an external surface A of the housing section A housing for the pressure transducer protector assembly comprises sections and in the exemplary embodiment illustrated in FIG.

Section extends through the passage of the housing section to the wellbore W, positioning a conventional diaphragm at the wellbore end of section A bore or chamber formed interior to section provides fluid communication from the diaphragm to a pressure transducer mounted in chamber of section Sections and are shown bolted to each other and to the housing section , to form the pressure transducer protector assembly Other ways of connecting sections and to each other and to the housing section or other housing section can be used.

Additionally, the pressure transducer protector assembly can be unitary, instead of comprising the two sections and Other shapes, arrangements, and configurations of sections and can be used. Pressure transducer is a conventional pressure transducer and can be of any suitable type or manufacture. In one embodiment, the pressure transducer is a sealed gauge pressure transducer. Additionally, other instrumentation can be inserted into the passage for monitoring predetermined characteristics of the wellbore W.

A plug allows electrical connection to the transducer for monitoring the pressure transducer Electrical connections between the transducer and plug and between the plug to an external monitor are not shown for clarity of the figure. The placement of the pressure transducer protector assembly in FIGS.

The assembly A of FIG. The alternate embodiment of FIG. The alternate embodiments of FIGS. The embodiment of FIG. The wellbore pressure measured by pressure transducer can be used to protect against unlatching the selected latching assembly if the wellbore pressure is above a predetermined amount. One value contemplated for the predetermined wellbore pressure is a range of above PSI.

Although illustrated with the dual hydraulic latch assembly in FIGS. Although FIGS. In one embodiment, illustrated in FIGS. Hydraulic lines also provide fluid to the latch assembly to move the pistons , , and In the illustrated embodiment, hydraulic fluid is provided from a fluid source not shown through a hydraulic line not shown to ports, best shown in FIG.

Passageways internal to the housing section and latch assembly communicate the fluid to the pistons , , and for moving the pistons , , and between their unlatched and latched positions. In addition, passageways internal to the housing section and latch assembly communicate the fluid to the pistons , , and for the latch position indicator system. Channels are formed in a surface of the pistons and As illustrated in FIGS.

If piston or is in the latched position, the channel aligns with at least two of the passageways, allowing a return passageway for the hydraulic fluid. As described below in more detail with respect to FIG. If the piston or is in the latched position, a hydraulic fluid pressure will indicate that the channel is providing fluid communication between the input hydraulic line and the return hydraulic line.

If the piston or is in the unlatched position, the channel is not aligned with the passageways, producing a lower pressure on the return line. As described below in more detail, the pressure measurement could also be on the input line, with a higher pressure indicating nonalignment of the channel and passageways, hence the piston or is in the unlatched position, and a lower pressure indicating alignment of the channel and passageways, hence the piston or is in the latched position.

As described below in more detail, a remote latch position indicator system can use these pressure values to cause indicators to display whether the pistons and are latched or unlatched. However, other techniques for forming the passageways can be used. The positions, orientations, and relative sizes of the passageways illustrated in FIGS. The channels of FIGS. The positions, shape, orientations, and relative sizes of the channels illustrated in FIGS.

A passageway formed in outer housing element communications passageway and the chamber , allowing fluid to enter the chamber and move piston to the latched position. Passageway may actually be multiple passageways in multiple radial-slices of latch assembly , as illustrated in FIGS. Also shown in FIG. Although, as shown in FIG. Another plurality of passageways formed in outer housing element provides fluid communication to chamber between piston and piston Fluid pressure in chamber through passageway urges piston into the unlatched position, and moves piston away from piston Yet another plurality of passageways formed in outer housing element provides fluid communication to chamber such that fluid pressure urges piston towards piston , and can, once piston contacts piston , cause piston to move into the unlatched position as an auxiliary or backup way of unlatching the latch assembly from the rotating control device , should fluid pressure via passageway fail to move piston Although as illustrated in FIG.

In addition, a passageway is formed in outer housing element This passageway forms a portion of passageway described below with respect to FIG. Turning now to FIG. If passageway is connected to a supply line, then hydraulic fluid input through passageway traverses passageway and channel , then returns via passageways and to a return hydraulic line, as shown in FIG.

If passageway is connected to a return line, then hydraulic fluid input through passageways and traverses the channel to return via passageways and to the return line. Because fluid communication between passageways and is interrupted when piston moves to the unlatched position, as shown in FIG. For example, if passageway is connected to a supply hydraulic line, a measured pressure value in the supply line above a predetermined pressure value will indicate that the piston is in the unlatched position.

Alternately, if passageway is connected to a return hydraulic line, a measured pressure value in the return line below a predetermined pressure value will indicate that the piston is in the unlatched position. As described above, when piston is in the latched position, passageways and are in fluid communication with each other, via passageways and , together with channel and are not in fluid communication when piston is in the unlatched position.

In addition, passageway is in fluid communication with passageway Turning to both FIG. Thus, when piston is in the latched position, hydraulic fluid supplied by a hydraulic supply line connected to one of passageways and flows through the housing section and latch assembly to a hydraulic return line connected to the other of passageways and As with the passageways for indicating the position of piston , such fluid communication between passageways and can indicate that piston is in the latched position, and lack of fluid communication between passageways and can indicate that piston is in the unlatched position.

For example, if passageway is connected to a hydraulic supply line, then if the measured pressure value in the supply line exceeds a predetermined pressure value, piston is in the unlatched position, and if the measured pressure value in the supply line is below a predetermined pressure value, piston is in the unlatched position. Alternately, if passageway is connected to a hydraulic return line, if the measured pressure value in the return line is equal to or above a predetermined pressure value, then piston is in the latched position, and if the pressure in the return line is equal to or less than a predetermined pressure value, then piston is in the unlatched position.

Similarly, in FIG. Likewise, as illustrated in FIG. Although described above in each case as entering chamber or from the corresponding passageways, one skilled in the art will recognize that fluid can also exit from the chambers when the piston is moved, depending on the direction of the move.

For example, viewing FIG. The arrangement of ports and order of the slices illustrated in FIGS. In addition, the placement of ports to illustrated in end view in FIG. In addition to the ports to , FIG. Because the housing section and latch assembly can be latched and unlatched from each other and to the rotating control device remotely using hydraulic line connected to ports , , , , and , the housing section , the latch assembly and the rotating control device can be latched to or unlatched from each other and repositioned as desired without sending personnel below the rotary table Likewise, because ports , , and can provide supply and return lines to a remote latch position indicator system, an operator of the rig does not need to send personnel below the rotary table to determine the position of the latch assembly , but can do so remotely.

It is also contemplated that the hydraulic latch position indicator system may be used with a secondary or back-up piston to determine its position, and therefore to indirectly determine the position of the retainer member. Further, it is contemplated that the hydraulic latch position indicator system may also be used with the retainer member to directly determine its position. The elements of FIG. Block represents a remote control display for the latch position indicator subsystem of the system S, and is further described in one embodiment in FIG.

Control lines connect pressure transducers PT , , , , and and flow meters FM , , , , , and For example, the flow meters FM may be totalizing flow meters, gear flow meters or a combination of these meters or other meters. One gear meter is an oval-gear meter having two rotating, oval-shaped gears with synchronized, close fitting teeth. When a fixed quantity of liquid passes through the meter for each revolution, shaft rotation can be monitored to obtain specific flow rates. It is also contemplated that the flow meters FM may be turbine flow meters.

However, other types of flow meters FM are contemplated to fit the particular application of the system. Also, if desired flow conditioners, such as those disclosed in U. Typically, a programmable logic controller PLC or other similar measurement and control device, either at each pressure transducer PT and flow meter FM or remotely in the block reads an electrical output from the pressure transducer PT or flow meter FM and converts the output into a signal for use by the remote control display , possibly by comparing a flow value or pressure value measured by the flow meter FM or pressure transducer PT to a predetermined flow value or pressure value, controlling the state of an indicator in the display according to a relative relationship between the measured value and the predetermined value.

For example, if the measured flow value is less than a predetermined value, the display may indicate one state of the flow meter FM or corresponding device, and if the measured flow value is greater than a predetermined value, the display may indicate another state of the flow meter FM or corresponding device. A fluid supply subsystem provides a controlled hydraulic fluid pressure to a fluid valve subsystem However, the fluid supply subsystem illustrated in FIG.

A fluid valve subsystem controls the provision of fluid to hydraulic fluid lines unnumbered that connect to the chambers , and Each of the valves , , and are illustrated as three-position, four-way electrically actuated hydraulic valves. Valves and , respectively, can be connected to pressure relief valves and The elements of the fluid valve subsystem as illustrated in FIG.

Pressure transducers PT or other pressure measuring devices , , , and measure the fluid pressure in the hydraulic lines between the fluid valve subsystem and the chambers , and Control lines connect the pressure measuring devices , , , and to the remote control display In addition, flow meters FM , , , , and measure the flow of hydraulic fluid to the chambers - , which can allow measuring the volume of fluid that is delivered to the chambers , and Although expressed herein in terms of pressure transducers PT and flow meters FM, other types of pressure and flow measuring devices can be used as desired.

Exemplary switches are toggle switches and push buttons, but other types of switches can be used. Pressure gauges , , , and connected by control lines to the pressure transducers, such as the pressure transducers PT of FIG. Indicators on the panel include wellbore pressure gauge , bearing latch pressure gauge , pump pressure gauge , and body latch pressure gauge The rotating control device or bearing latch pressure indicates the pressure in the chamber at the end of the chamber where fluid is introduced to move the piston into the latched position.

The housing section or body latch pressure gauge indicates the pressure in the chamber at the end of the chamber where fluid is introduced to move the piston into the latched position. A switch or other control can be provided to cause the system S to manipulate the fluid valve subsystem to move the piston between the latched closed and unlatched open positions.

For safety reasons, the body latch control is preferably protected with a switch cover or other apparatus for preventing accidental manipulation of the control For safety reasons, in some embodiments, an enable switch can be similarly protected by a switch cover In one embodiment, engaging the enable switch allows activation of other switches within 10 seconds of engaging the enable switch.

This technique helps prevent accidental unlatching or other dangerous actions that might otherwise be caused by accidental engagement of the other switch. The pressure value can be reduced if a drilling nipple or other thin walled apparatus is installed.

Other fluid pressure values can be used. Indicators , , , , , , , , , and provide indicators of the state of the latch assembly and other useful indicators. In one embodiment, indicators , , , and are green lamps, while indicators , , , , , and are red lamps; however, other colors can be used as desired. Such illuminated indicators are known to the art.

Indicator indicates whether the hydraulic pump of FIG. Specifically, indicators and indicate whether the bearing latch is closed or open, respectively, corresponding to the piston being in the latched or unlatched position, indicating the rotating control device is latched to the latch assembly Indicators and indicate whether the auxiliary or secondary latch is closed or open, respectively, corresponding to the piston being in the first or second position.

Indicators and indicate whether the body latch is closed or open, respectively, i. Additionally, hydraulic fluid indicators and indicate low fluid or fluid leak conditions, respectively. An additional alarm indicator indicates various alarm conditions. Some exemplary alarm conditions include: low fluid, fluid leak, pump not working, pump being turned off while wellbore pressure is present and latch switch being moved to open when wellbore pressure is greater than a predetermined value, such as 25 PSI.

In addition, a horn not shown can be provided for an additional audible alarm for safety purposes. The display allows remote control of the latch assembly and , as well as remote indication of the state of the latch assembly and , as well as other related elements. As shown by blocks , , , , and , if the wellbore pressure is in a predetermined relative relation to a predetermined pressure value, illustrated in FIG. As shown by blocks , , , , and , if the wellbore pressure is in a predetermined relative relationship to a predetermined pressure value, illustrated in FIG.

Additionally, as indicated by blocks , , , , and , if the wellbore pressure is in a predetermined relative relationship to a predetermined pressure value, illustrated in FIG. The conditions that cause activation of the alarm and horn of FIG.

Passageways and as shown in FIG. Ports , , , , and allow connection of hydraulic lines to passageways , , , and , respectively. By measuring the flow of fluid with flow meters FM, the amount or volume of fluid pumped through passageways , , , and can be measured and compared to a predetermined volume.

Based on the relative relationship between the measured volume value and the predetermined volume value, the system S of FIG. In one embodiment, the predetermined volume value is a range of predetermined volume values.

The predetermined volume value can be experimentally determined. An exemplary range of predetermined volume values is 0. Other ranges of predetermined volume values are contemplated. Movement of the retainer member by the piston can be sensed by a switch piston protruding in the latching formation The switch piston is moved outwardly by the retainer member Movement of the switch piston causes electrical switch to open or close, which can in turn cause an electrical signal via electrical connector to a remote indicator position system and to display Internal wiring is not shown in FIG.

Any convenient type of switch and electrical connector can be used. Preferably, switch piston is biased inwardly toward the latch assembly , either by switch or by a spring or similar apparatus, so that switch piston will move inwardly toward the latch assembly when the retainer member retracts upon unlatching the latch assembly from the housing section As can now be understood, FIG. Further, FIG. As can now be understood, the output from electrical switch may be used to remotely and directly determine whether retainer member is latched or unlatched.

Various changes in the details of the illustrated apparatus and construction and the method of operation may be made. In particular, variations in the orientation of the rotating control device , latch assemblies , , housing section , and other system components are possible. For example, the retainer members and can be biased radially inward or outward. The pistons , , and can be a continuous annular member or a series of cylindrical pistons disposed about the latch assembly.

Furthermore, while the embodiments described above have discussed rotating control devices, the apparatus and techniques disclosed herein can be used to advantage on other tools, including rotating blowout preventers. For example, the retainer member can engage directly with the rotating control device or can be engaged with the rotating control device indirectly through an intermediate member and still fall within the scope of the disclosure.

The rotating control device preferably includes an active seal assembly and a passive seal assembly Each seal assembly , includes components that rotate with respect to a housing The components that rotate in the rotating control device are mounted for rotation about a plurality of bearings As depicted, the active seal assembly includes a bladder support housing mounted within the plurality of bearings The bladder support housing is used to mount bladder Under hydraulic pressure, bladder moves radially inward to seal around a tubular, such as a drilling pipe or tubular not shown.

In this manner, bladder can expand to seal off a borehole using the rotating control device Typically, the upper and lower caps , are secured in position by a setscrew not shown. Upper and lower seals , seal off chamber that is preferably defined radially outwardly of bladder and radially inwardly of bladder support housing Generally, fluid is supplied to the chamber under a controlled pressure to energize the bladder Essentially, the hydraulic control maintains and monitors hydraulic pressure within pressure chamber Hydraulic pressure P 1 is preferably maintained by the hydraulic control between 0 to PSI above a wellbore pressure P 2.

The bladder is constructed from flexible material allowing bladder surface to press against the tubular at approximately the same pressure as the hydraulic pressure P 1. Due to the flexibility of the bladder, it also may conveniently seal around irregular shaped tubular string, such as a hexagonal Kelly. In this respect, the hydraulic control maintains the differential pressure between the pressure chamber at pressure P 1 and wellbore pressure P 2. Additionally, the active seal assembly includes support fingers to support the bladder at the most stressful area of the seal between the fluid pressure P 1 and the ambient pressure.

The hydraulic control may be used to de-energize the bladder and allow the active seal assembly to release the seal around the tubular. Generally, fluid in the chamber is drained into a hydraulic reservoir not shown , thereby reducing the pressure P 1. Subsequently, the bladder surface loses contact with the tubular as the bladder becomes de-energized and moves radially outward. In this manner, the seal around the tubular is released allowing the tubular to be removed from the rotating control device In the embodiment shown in FIG.

Fluid is not required to operate the passive seal assembly but rather it utilizes pressure P 2 to create a seal around the tubular. The passive seal assembly is constructed and arranged in an axially downward conical shape, thereby allowing the pressure P 2 to act against a tapered surface to close the passive seal assembly around the tubular. Additionally, the passive seal assembly includes an inner diameter smaller than the outer diameter of the tubular to provide an interference fit between the tubular and the passive seal assembly The rotating control device is generally constructed from similar components as the rotating control device , as shown in FIG.

Therefore, for convenience, similar components that function in the same manner will be labeled with the same numbers as the rotating control device The primary difference between rotating control device and rotating control device is the use of two passive seal assemblies , an alternative cooling system using one fluid to cool the radial seals and bearings in combination with a radial seal pressure protection system, and a secondary piston SP in addition to a primary piston P for urging the piston P to the unlatched position.

While FIG. The passive seal assemblies are constructed and arranged in an axially-downward conical shape, thereby allowing the wellbore pressure P 2 in the rotating control device to act against the tapered surfaces to close the passive seal assemblies around the tubular T. Additionally, the passive seal assemblies include inner diameters which are smaller than the outer diameter of the tubular T to allow an interference fit between the tubular and the passive seal assemblies.

Turning now to FIGS. Referring particularly to FIG. As discussed in the flowcharts of FIGS. If the elapsed time is equal to or over 3 seconds, the change in position of SW 10 is not recognized. Continuing on the flowchart of FIG. These temperature switches indicate oil tank temperature. When the oil temperature is below a designated temperature, e. When the oil temperature is above a designated temperature, e. As described in the flowchart of FIG.

While the embodiments of the present invention, particularly FIGS. Further, reviewing FIGS. The level switches are positioned to indicate when the tank is overfull no room for heat expansion of the oil , when the tank is low oil heater coil is close to being exposed , or when the tank is empty oil heater coil is exposed. As long as the tank is not overfull or empty, the power unit will pass this check by the PLC program. Assuming that the power unit is within the above parameters, valves V 80 and V 90 are placed in their open positions, as shown in FIG.

These valve openings unload gear pumps P 2 and P 3 , respectively, so that when motor M 1 starts, the oil is bypassed to tank Valve V is also placed in its open position, as shown in FIG. Returning to FIG. The pressure recommended by the pump manufacturer for internal pump lubrication is approximately PSI.

Continuing review of the flowchart of FIG. Text messages corresponding to these alarms are displayed on display monitor DM. When the PLC program has checked all of the above parameters the power unit will be allowed to start. When shutdown of the unit desired, the PLC program checks to see if conditions are acceptable to turn the power unit off.

For example, the wellbore pressure P 2 should be below 50 PSI. Both the enable button PB 10 must be pressed and the power switch SW 10 must be turned to the OFF position within 3 seconds to turn the power unit off. Focusing now on FIGS. The fluid pilot valve V FIG. Valve V prevents reverse flow in case of a loss of pressure. Accumulator A which allows room for heat expansion of the fluid in the latch assembly is set at psi, slightly above the latch pressure psi, so that it will not charge.

Fluid pilot valve V FIG. Valve V 70 is shown in FIG. The pump P 1 , shown in FIG. Alternative latching systems are disclosed in FIGS. With the above described startup operation achieved, the hydraulics switch SW 20 on the control console CC is turned to the ON position.

This allows the pump P 1 to compensate to the required pressure later in the PLC program. The pump P 1 adjusts to provide psi and the valve positions are then set as detailed above. As discussed below, the PLC program then compares the amount of fluid that flows through flow meters FM 30 , FM 40 and FM 50 to ensure that the required amount of fluid to close or latch the latching system goes through the flow meters. If the PT 70 reading is above a predetermined pressure approximately 50 psi , the power unit will not allow the retainer member LP to open or unlatch.

Three-way valve V 70 FIG. The fluid flows through valve V into the chamber to urge the primary piston P to move to allow retainer member LP to unlatch. The secondary piston SP is used to open or unlatch the primary piston P and, therefore, the retainer member LP of the latching system.

Prior to unlatching the latching system, pressure transducer PT 70 again checks the wellbore pressure P 2. If PT 70 is reading above a predetermined pressure approximately 50 psi , the power unit will not allow the latching system to open or unlatch. With valve V forced closed by the resulting pressure and valve V piloted open, fluid from both sides of the primary piston P is allowed to go back to tank though the B-T ports of valve V During the running of the PLC program, certain sensors such as flow meters and pressure transducers are checked.

If the values are out of tolerance, alarms are activated. The flowcharts of FIGS. Below Table 2 shows the lights, horn and causes associated with the activated alarms. As discussed below, a text message corresponding to the cause is sent to the display monitor DM on the control console CC.

In this comparison, the flow meter FM 30 coupled to the line FM 30 L measures either the flow volume value or flow rate value of fluid to the piston chamber to move the piston P to the latched position, as shown in FIG. Also, the flow meter FM 40 coupled to the line FM 40 L measures the desired flow volume value or flow rate value from the piston chamber. Since no secondary piston is shown in FIG. In this comparison, if there are no significant leaks, the flow volume value or flow rate value measured by flow meter FM 30 should be equal to the flow volume value or flow rate value, respectively, measured by flow meter FM 40 within a predetermined tolerance.

Furthermore, if the values from flow meter FM 30 and flow meter FM 40 are not within the predetermined tolerance, i. In this comparison, the flow volume value or flow rate value, measured by flow meter FM 30 coupled to line FM 30 L, to move piston P to its latched position, as shown in FIG. But fluid beneath the secondary piston SP would be evacuated via line FM 50 L from the piston chamber of the latch assembly.

Flow meter FM 50 would then measure the flow volume value or flow rate value. The measured flow volume value or flow rate value from flow meter FM 30 is then compared to the measured flow volume value or flow rate value from flow meter FM Furthermore, if the values from flow meter FM 30 and flow meter FM 50 are not within a predetermined tolerance, the corresponding light LT would be displayed on the control console CC.

Sometimes the primary piston P is in its full unlatched position and the secondary piston SP is somewhere between its bottomed out position and in contact with the fully unlatched piston P. In this comparison, the flow volume value or flow rate value measured by the flow meter FM 30 to move piston P to its latched position is measured. This measured value from flow meter FM 40 is compared to the measured value from flow meter FM If the flow value from flow meter FM 30 is not within a predetermined tolerance of the compared sum of the flow values from flow meter FM 40 and flow meter FM 50 , then the corresponding light LT would be displayed on the control console CC.

This detected leak is displayed on display monitor DM in a text message. An alternative to the above leak detection methods of comparing measured values is to use a predetermined or previously calculated value. It is noted that in addition to indicating the latch position, the flow meters FM 30 , FM 40 and FM 50 are also monitored so that if fluid flow continues after the piston P has moved to the closed or latched position for a predetermined time period, a possible hose or seal leak is flagged.

The flow meter FM 40 measured flow value is compared to a predetermined value plus a tolerance to indicate the position of piston P. When the flow meter FM 40 reaches the tolerance range of this predetermined value, the piston P is indicated in the open or unlatched position. If the flow meter FM 40 either exceeds this tolerance range of the predetermined value or continues to read a flow value after a predetermined time period, such as an hour, the PLC program indicates the Alarm ALARM 90 and its corresponding light and text message as discussed herein.

The flow meter FM 50 measured flow value is compared to a predetermined value plus a tolerance to indicate the position of secondary piston SP. When the flow meter FM 50 reaches the tolerance range of this predetermined value, the secondary piston SP is indicated in the open or unlatched position.

If the flow meter FM 50 either exceeds this tolerance range of the predetermined value or continues to read a flow value after a predetermined time period, such as an hour, the PLC program indicates the alarm ALARM and its corresponding light and text message as discussed herein. The flow meter FM 30 measured flow value is compared to a predetermined value plus a tolerance to indicate the position of primary piston P.

When the flow meter FM 30 reaches the tolerance range of this predetermined value, the primary piston P is indicated in the closed or latched position. If the flow meter FM 30 either exceeds this tolerance range of the predetermined value or continues to read a flow value after a predetermined time period, such as an hour, the PLC program indicates the alarm ALARM and its corresponding light and text message as discussed herein.

One example would be to use an electrical sensor, such as a linear displacement transducer, to measure the distance the selected piston has moved. This type of sensor is a non-contact sensor as it does not make physical contact with the target, and will be discussed below in detail. The information from the sensor may be remotely used to indirectly determine whether the retainer member is latched or unlatched based upon the position of the piston.

Another method could be drilling the housing of the latch assembly for a valve that would be opened or closed by either the primary piston P, as shown in the embodiment of FIG. In this method, a port PO would be drilled or formed in the bottom of the piston chamber of the latch assembly.

These perpendicular ports would communicate with respective passages INP and OUP that extend upward in the radially outward portion of the latch assembly housing. A machined valve seat VS in the port to the piston chamber receives a corresponding valve seat, such as a needle valve seat. The needle valve seat would be fixedly connected to a rod R receiving a coil spring CS about its lower portion to urge the needle valve seat to the open or unlatched position if neither primary piston P FIG.

Rod R makes physical contact with secondary piston SP. An alignment retainer member AR is sealed as the member is threadably connected to the housing H. The upper portion of rod R is slidably sealed with retainer member AR. This open valve indicates the piston is in the open or unlatched position.

This closed valve indicates the piston is in the closed or latched position. This information may then be remotely used to indirectly determine whether the retainer member is latched or unlatched depending upon the position of the piston. Other embodiments of latch position indicator systems using latch position indicator sensors are shown in FIGS.

Other attachment means are contemplated. Retainer member is in the latched position with RCD Retainer member is extended radially inwardly from the latch assembly , engaging latching formation on the RCD An annular piston is in the first position, and blocks retainer member in the radially inward position for latching with RCD Movement of the piston from a second position to the first position compresses or moves retainer member to the engaged or latched position shown in FIG.

Although shown as an annular piston, the piston can be implemented as a plurality of separate pistons disposed about the latch assembly. First piston may be moved into the second position directly by hydraulic fluid. However, as a backup unlatching capability, a second or auxiliary piston may be used to urge the first piston into the second position to unlatch the RCD As can now be understood, latching assembly is a single hydraulic latch assembly similar to latching assembly in FIG.

Latch position indicator sensor housing is attached with latch assembly Latch position indicator sensor is mounted with housing Sensor can detect the distance from the sensor to the targeted inclined surface , including while piston moves. Although the slope of the inclined surface is shown as negative, it should be understood that the slope of the inclined surface may be positive, which is true for all the inclined surfaces on the pistons on all the other embodiments shown below.

Enlarged views of a housing and sensor similar to housing and sensor are shown in FIGS. As can now be understood, sensor is mounted laterally in relation to piston As can also be understood, sensor is a non-contact type sensor in that it does not make physical contact with piston However, contact type sensors that do make contact with piston are contemplated. Contact and non-contact type sensors may be used interchangeably for all the embodiments of the invention.

As can further be understood, the information from sensor may be used remotely to indirectly determine whether retainer member is latched or unlatched from the position of piston Latch position indicator sensor , as well as the latch position indicator sensors , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , shown in FIGS. M available from Turck Inc. Both the Turck and Balluff sensors are non-contact sensors. It is understood that an analog inductive sensor provides an electrical output signal that varies linearly in proportion to the position of a metal target within its working range, as shown in FIGS.

It is further understood that the inductive proximity sensor emits an alternating electromagnetic sensing field based upon the eddy current sensing principle. When a metal target enters the sensing field, eddy currents are induced in the target, reducing the signal amplitude and triggering a change of state at the sensor output. The distance to the target may be determined from the sensor output. The motion of the target may also be determined from the sensor output.

It is contemplated that different types of sensors may be used with the same latch assembly, such as latch assembly in FIG. It is contemplated that all sensors for all embodiments of the invention may be contact type sensors or non-contact type sensors. Although the preferred sensor shown in FIG. It is also contemplated that the transmission from any sensor shown in any embodiment may be wireless, such as shown in FIG. It is also contemplated for all embodiments of the invention that a signal inducing device, such as a magnet, an active radio frequency identification device, a radioactive pill, or a nuclear transmitting device, may be mounted on piston , similar to those shown in Pub.

The ' publication, assigned to the assignee of the present invention, is incorporated by reference for all purposes in its entirety. It is also contemplated that a signal inducing device may be mounted on a retainer member, such as retainer member , as shown in FIGS. A passive radio frequency identification device is also contemplated to be mounted on piston or retainer member It is also contemplated that a sensor may be mounted on piston or retainer member , which may detect a signal inducing device on latching assembly If they do, short sellers can buy back the borrowed stock at a discount and pocket the difference.

However, if the price rises, these bearish traders lose money because they must complete the terms of the short contract at inflated valuations. Of course, covering the short position requires buying the stock, which increases demand and raises the price. Those bullish on CTRM stock anticipate more bears must cover their position before the trade gets out of hand, driving up sentiment. Today, you have an endless array of choices and perks such as commission-free trading.

Emotions, satisfying bells and whistles and more, these apps egg you on to make even more trades. Note this and keep yourself in check. Also note that Robinhood previously restricted trading on CTRM stock, though it appears the app removed this restriction. Finally, make sure you consider brokerages from a holistic perspective and not because of a single incentive.

Because you execute trades on a share count basis and not on a dollar basis, you must first convert dollars to shares. You can do this by dividing the amount you want to invest by the current price per share. Note that some brokerages may allow you to purchase fractional shares.

Although investing and trading stocks is remarkably easy once you understand the process, a slight learning curve exists. Before you buy your first stock, you should familiarize yourself with these concepts. Bid The bid represents the highest price a buyer is willing to pay for a publicly traded security.

It is always lower than the ask barring extremely unusual circumstances. Ask On the other end of the scale, the ask is the lowest price a seller is willing to accept for a stock. Spread Known as the bid-ask spread, this is the difference between the bid and ask prices. You generate profits through speculation while market makers make money on the spread. Limit Order If you want to buy a stock at a specific price, you can do so through limit orders.

The advantage is full transparency — you control your entry point on your terms. However, the drawback is that the market can move away from your price, even by a small margin, preventing order fulfillment. Market Order Should you wish to execute an order no matter what, a market order is the best choice. It fulfills a request at the next available price. Of course, the benefit is a guarantee that your order will execute during a trading session. Stop-Loss Order A stop-loss order is a safety valve for your portfolio.

It executes a sell order when your target stock falls to a certain price. As the name suggests, stop-loss orders are incredibly useful to automatically exit a position when volatility strikes the market. Stop-Limit Order A stop-limit order is very similar to a stop-loss order except for 1 key difference — it will initiate a transaction only at a specific price. This has a critical advantage in strategic risk assessment.

Of course, if it never reaches this point, you would have been better off with a stop-loss order. Virtually all online brokerages function in a similar way when it comes to executing your trade. For market orders, simply input how many shares you would like to purchase and your request will execute at the next available price.

For a fast-moving security like CTRM stock, you may wish to acquire some shares with market orders just to get you on the board. In the next transaction, you can set specific limit orders. Webull, founded in , is a mobile app-based brokerage that features commission-free stock and exchange-traded fund ETF trading.

Webull offers active traders technical indicators, economic calendars, ratings from research agencies, margin trading and short-selling. Moomoo is a commission-free mobile trading app available on Apple, Google and Windows devices. A subsidiary of Futu Holdings Ltd. Securities offered by Futu Inc. Moomoo is another great alternative for Robinhood. This is an outstanding trading platform if you want to dive deep into smart trading. It offers impressive trading tools and opportunities for both new and advanced traders, including advanced charting, pre and post-market trading, international trading, research and analysis tools, and most popular of all, free Level 2 quotes.

Get started right away by downloading Moomoo to your phone, tablet or another mobile device. You can choose from two different platforms one basic, one advanced. This latest groundbreaking technology is IBKR GlobalAnalyst, a new trading tool that helps investors compare the rate of PEG or price-earnings growth valuations and provide more immediate and comprehensive financial metrics of stocks, globally. Recognizing that stock selection can be challenging for investors to compare the valuations of domestic and international stocks, Interactive Brokers created GlobalAnalyst to offer investors a simple, yet powerful tool to easily evaluate investment opportunities around the world.

Using GlobalAnalyst, investors can search for stocks by region, country, industry, market capitalization and currency to uncover undervalued stocks worldwide. The resulting table displays the current market and financial metrics, including the PEG Ratio. They have a few unique education and useability tools. Traders can begin buying and selling in as little as 10 minutes. CenterPoint Securities is ideal for active traders who demand access to advanced tools and services. If you value execution quality, access to short inventory, advanced trading platforms, and accessible customer service, CenterPoint is an excellent choice.

Castor Maritime made its debut on the Nasdaq exchange in February While CTRM stock popped higher in the following few months, shares eventually tumbled. Unfortunately, the company suffered from bad timing: the global economy was under pressure from the U. Optimism kicked in during the back half of as U. However, this was a short-lived benefit for CTRM stock. Soon after, the coronavirus pandemic rippled throughout the world, gutting shares.

Many hedge funds and institutional investors took a dim view on Castor Maritime because of the novel coronavirus pandemic. However, you can point to some pros for buying the stock:. You might classify Castor Maritime as a self-fulfilling prophecy. Initially, contrarian traders jumped on CTRM stock because hedge funds decided to short it. By collectively driving up the price of Castor shares, it puts pressure on bearish traders to cover their short position and cut their losses.

However, as more people join the party, CTRM has become less about an astute contrarian opportunity and more about fueling the emotions of the masses.

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